Side effects include a decreased level of consciousness along with a decreased effort to breathe. Phenobarbital was discovered in and is the oldest still commonly used anti-seizure medication. Phenobarbital is used in the treatment of all types of seizures, except absence seizures. The first-line drugs for treatment of status epilepticus are benzodiazepines , such as lorazepam or diazepam. If these fail, then phenytoin may be used, with phenobarbital being an alternative in the US, but used only third-line in the UK.
Take phenobarbital exactly as prescribed by your doctor. They fail to include both malformations noticed after the baby involved has left hospital and pregnancies terminated because of detected foetal malformation. Arch Neurol ;— A mysterious woman, Phenobarbitwl as the Isdal WomanPhysical characteristics of adults found dead in BergenNorway, on 29 November Phenobarbital overdose and pregnancy Whether this decline is accompanied by increased seizure pregjancy has not been confirmed empirically overose whether pregnancy influences the frequency of seizures at all is controversial. In infants suspected of neonatal biliary atresiaphenobarbital is used in preparation for a 99m Tc-IDA hepatobiliary HIDA ; h epatobiliary 99m Tc- i mino d iacetic a cid study that differentiates atresia from hepatitis or cholestasis. Its potential alternatives tend to fall short in maintaining seizure control. Risks of congenital malformations in offspring exposed to valproic acid in utero: emergence of the signals over the last 30 Phenobarbital overdose and pregnancy. Women who abuse barbiturates are at the higher level of risk.
Diva tool shows. Phenobarbital Breastfeeding Warnings
Treating Phenobarbital overdose and pregnancy Addiction A sedative use disorder that involves phenobarbital may occur with misuse of the drug over time. As a sedative hypnotic, phenobarbital sedates the Phenobarbital overdose and pregnancy by depressing the central nervous system CNS and slowing down brain activity. Smith 26 March Pellock; W. Phenobarbital, known by the brand names Luminal and Solfoton, is a medication used to control seizures, treat anxiety and insomniaand prevent withdrawal symptoms in patients who are addicted to certain barbiturate drugs. Brain Research Bulletin. Email Us. Retrieved September 17, In some cases, the only care needed may be monitoring of vital signs. Barbiturate drugs are obtained via condensation reactions between a derivative of diethyl malonate and urea in the presence of a strong base. Hitler later signed a secret decree permitting the euthanasia of disabled infants.
This medication may be prescribed for other uses.
- Side effects include a decreased level of consciousness along with a decreased effort to breathe.
- The calming effect brought about by phenobarbital makes it a desirable recreational drug to some individuals.
- Phenobarbital is a type of sedative that is not commonly used except for seizure disorders.
- Phenobarbital is known for its calming effect, which some users describe as euphoric.
Side effects include a decreased level of consciousness along with a decreased effort to breathe. Phenobarbital was discovered in and is the oldest still commonly used anti-seizure medication. Phenobarbital is used in the treatment of all types of seizures, except absence seizures. The first-line drugs for treatment of status epilepticus are benzodiazepines , such as lorazepam or diazepam.
If these fail, then phenytoin may be used, with phenobarbital being an alternative in the US, but used only third-line in the UK. Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for the treatment of neonatal seizures. No reliable evidence, though, supports this approach.
Phenobarbital is sometimes used for alcohol detoxification and benzodiazepine detoxification for its sedative and anti-convulsant properties. The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide Librium and oxazepam Serax have largely replaced phenobarbital for detoxification. Phenobarbital properties can effectively reduce tremors and seizures associated with abrupt withdrawal from benzodiazepines.
Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P inducer, and is used to reduce the toxicity of some drugs. Phenobarbital is occasionally prescribed in low doses to aid in the conjugation of bilirubin in people with Crigler—Najjar syndrome, type II ,  or in patients with Gilbert's syndrome. Phenobarbital can also be used to relieve cyclic vomiting syndrome symptoms. Phenobarbital is a commonly used agent in high purity and dosage for lethal injection of "death row" criminals.
In infants suspected of neonatal biliary atresia , phenobarbital is used in preparation for a 99m Tc-IDA hepatobiliary HIDA ; h epatobiliary 99m Tc- i mino d iacetic a cid study that differentiates atresia from hepatitis or cholestasis. Phenobarbital is used as a secondary agent to treat newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome , a condition of withdrawal symptoms from exposure to opioid drugs in utero.
In massive doses, phenobarbital is prescribed to terminally ill patients to allow them to end their life through physician-assisted suicide.
Like other barbiturates, phenobarbital can be used recreationally ,  but this is reported to be relatively infrequent. Sedation and hypnosis are the principal side effects occasionally, they are also the intended effects of phenobarbital. In elderly patients, it may cause excitement and confusion, while in children, it may result in paradoxical hyperactivity.
Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P hepatic enzyme inducer. It binds transcription factor receptors that activate cytochrome P transcription, thereby increasing its amount and thus its activity. Due to this higher amount of CYP, drugs that are metabolized by the CYP enzyme system will have decreased effectiveness.
This is because the increased CYP activity increases the clearance of the drug, reducing the amount of time they have to work. Caution is to be used with children. Acute intermittent porphyria , hypersensitivity to any barbiturate, prior dependence on barbiturates, severe respiratory insufficiency as with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , severe liver failure , pregnancy, and breastfeeding are contraindications for phenobarbital use.
Phenobarbital causes a depression of the body's systems, mainly the central and peripheral nervous systems. Thus, the main characteristic of phenobarbital overdose is a "slowing" of bodily functions, including decreased consciousness even coma , bradycardia , bradypnea , hypothermia , and hypotension in massive overdoses. Overdose may also lead to pulmonary edema and acute renal failure as a result of shock , and can result in death.
The electroencephalogram EEG of a person with phenobarbital overdose may show a marked decrease in electrical activity, to the point of mimicking brain death. This is due to profound depression of the central nervous system, and is usually reversible. Treatment of phenobarbital overdose is supportive , and mainly consists of the maintenance of airway patency through endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation , correction of bradycardia and hypotension with intravenous fluids and vasopressors , if necessary , and removal of as much drug as possible from the body.
Depending on how much time has elapsed since ingestion of the drug, this may be accomplished through gastric lavage stomach pumping or use of activated charcoal. Through its action on GABA A receptors , phenobarbital increases the flow of chloride ions into the neuron which decreases the excitability of the post-synaptic neuron.
Hyperpolarizing this post-synaptic membrane leads to a decrease in the general excitatory aspects of the post-synaptic neuron. By making it harder to depolarize the neuron, the threshold for the action potential of the post-synaptic neuron will be increased. Phenobarbital stimulates GABA to accomplish this hyperpolarization. Peak plasma concentrations C max are reached eight to 12 hours after oral administration. Phenobarbital is metabolized by the liver, mainly through hydroxylation and glucuronidation , and induces many isozymes of the cytochrome P system.
It is excreted primarily by the kidneys. Phenobarbital is one of the initial drugs of choice to treat epilepsy in dogs , and is the initial drug of choice to treat epilepsy in cats. It is also used to treat feline hyperesthesia syndrome in cats when anti-obsessional therapies prove ineffective. It may also be used to treat seizures in horses when benzodiazepine treatment has failed or is contraindicated.
The first barbiturate drug, barbital , was synthesized in by German chemists Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering and was first marketed as Veronal by Friedr. Bayer et comp. By , several related drugs, including phenobarbital, had been synthesized by Fischer.
Phenobarbital was brought to market in by the drug company Bayer as the brand Luminal. It remained a commonly prescribed sedative and hypnotic until the introduction of benzodiazepines in the s. Phenobarbital's soporific, sedative and hypnotic properties were well known in , but it was not yet known to be an effective anti-convulsant.
The young doctor Alfred Hauptmann  gave it to his epilepsy patients as a tranquilizer and discovered their seizures were susceptible to the drug. Hauptmann performed a careful study of his patients over an extended period. On phenobarbital, their epilepsy was much improved: The worst patients suffered fewer and lighter seizures and some patients became seizure-free. In addition, they improved physically and mentally as bromides were removed from their regimen. Patients who had been institutionalised due to the severity of their epilepsy were able to leave and, in some cases, resume employment.
Hauptmann dismissed concerns that its effectiveness in stalling seizures could lead to patients suffering a build-up that needed to be "discharged". As he expected, withdrawal of the drug led to an increase in seizure frequency — it was not a cure. The drug was quickly adopted as the first widely effective anti-convulsant, though World War I delayed its introduction in the U.
In , a German family asked Adolf Hitler to have their disabled son killed; the five-month-old boy was given a lethal dose of Luminal after Hitler sent his own doctor to examine him. A few days later 15 psychiatrists were summoned to Hitler's Chancellery and directed to commence a clandestine euthanasia program.
In , at a clinic in Ansbach , Germany, around 50 intellectually disabled children were injected with Luminal and killed that way. Phenobarbital was used to treat neonatal jaundice by increasing liver metabolism and thus lowering bilirubin levels. In the s, phototherapy was discovered, and became the standard treatment. Phenobarbital was used for over 25 years as prophylaxis in the treatment of febrile seizures. Barbiturate drugs are obtained via condensation reactions between a derivative of diethyl malonate and urea in the presence of a strong base.
The reason for this difference is due to the fact that aryl halides do not typically undergo nucleophilic substitution in Malonic ester synthesis in the same way as aliphatic organosulfates or halocarbons do. The first of these methods consists of a Pinner reaction of benzyl cyanide, giving phenylacetic acid ethyl ester.
Upon heating this intermediate easily loses carbon monoxide , yielding diethyl phenylmalonate. Finally a condensation reaction with urea gives phenobarbital.
Finally acidic hydrolysis of the resulting product gives phenobarbital. British veterinarian Donald Sinclair , better known as the character Siegfried Farnon in the "All Creatures Great and Small" book series by James Herriot , committed suicide at the age of 84 by injecting himself with an overdose of phenobarbital. Activist Abbie Hoffman also committed suicide by consuming phenobarbital, combined with alcohol, on April 12, ; the residue of around pills was found in his body at autopsy.
The Japanese officers aboard the German submarine U killed themselves with phenobarbital while the German crew members were on their way to the US to surrender but before Japan had surrendered. Thirty-nine members of the Heaven's Gate UFO religious group committed mass suicide in March by drinking a lethal dose of phenobarbital and vodka "and then lay down to die" hoping to enter an alien spacecraft.
A mysterious woman, known as the Isdal Woman , was found dead in Bergen , Norway, on 29 November Her death was caused by some combination of burns, phenobarbital, and carbon monoxide poisoning; many theories about her death have been posited, and it is believed that she may have been a spy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Pentobarbital. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Main article: Barbiturate overdose. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Archived from the original on Retrieved Aug 14, Bulletin of the World Health Organization. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. January Australian Government. Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 22 April Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 14 August Brenner, Craig W. Pharmacology 4th ed. World Health Organization. April Archived PDF from the original on 13 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Treatment usually begins with supervised detox, as withdrawal can be dangerous. Is Phenobarbital Harmful? Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P hepatic enzyme inducer. Main article: Barbiturate overdose. Archived from the original on 31 October Two Polish physicians reported at the time that children from ages up to 14 were listed in the booklet, of whom had died. Skip to Content.
Phenobarbital overdose and pregnancy. Navigation menu
If you miss a dose of phenobarbital, take it as soon as your remember. Don't "double up" to make up for a missed one.
Drugs A-Z provides drug information from Everyday Health and our partners, as well as ratings from our members, all in one place. You can browse Drugs A-Z for a specific prescription or over-the-counter drug or look up drugs based on your specific condition.
This information is for educational purposes only, and not meant to provide medical advice, treatment, or diagnosis. Remember to always consult your physician or health care provider before starting, stopping, or altering a treatment or health care regimen. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by on this page is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect.
Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. The information on this page has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore neither Everyday Health or its licensor warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Neither Everyday Health nor its licensors endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient.
Neither Everyday Health nor its licensor assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of the information provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects.
If you have any questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. Everyday Health Drugs Barbiturates Phenobarbital. What Is Phenobarbital Luminal?
Phenobarbital Side Effects. Phenobarbital Interactions. Phenobarbital Dosage. Phenobarbital Phenobarbital 30 mg-GG, white, round,.
Phenobarbital mg-RAN, white, round,. Phenobarbital 60 mg-LIL, white, round,. Retrieved 22 April Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 14 August Brenner, Craig W. Pharmacology 4th ed. World Health Organization. April Archived PDF from the original on 13 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
British National Formulary for Children. London: BMJ Publishing. CNS Drugs. The treatment of epilepsy 3rd ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Pellock; W. Edwin Dodson; Blaise F. Bourgeois Pediatric Epilepsy. Demos Medical Publishing. Booth D ed. July American Family Physician. Drug Therapy in Nursing. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th edition. Mc Graw Hill. Although the incidence of kernicterus in CN-II is low, instances have occurred, not only in infants but also in adolescents and adults, often in the setting of an intercurrent illness, fasting, or another factor that temporarily raises the serum bilirubin concentration above baseline and reduces serum albumin levels.
Archived PDF from the original on Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. MedLine Plus. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 15 July In Dewey, Curtis W. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press. Kahn; associate editor Scott Line February 8, Kahn, Cynthia M. The Merck Veterinary Manual 9th ed.
Drug Discovery. John Wiley and Sons. The History of Epileptic Therapy. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 1 November Smith 26 March Weekly Standard. Hitler later signed a secret decree permitting the euthanasia of disabled infants. Sympathetic physicians and nurses from around the country--many not even Nazi party members--cooperated in the horror that followed.
Formal 'protective guidelines' were created, including the creation of a panel of 'expert referees,' which judged which infants were eligible for the program. University of Vermont. Archived from the original on 3 November In the late s, important developments occurred at the clinic that led to the first publication on the subject and the display of two plaques.
Dr Reiner Weisenseel wrote his dissertation under Dr Athen, then the director of the Ansbacher Bezirkskrankenhaus, on the involvement of the clinic in Euthanasia crimes, including the operation of the Kinderfachabteilung. Since a plaque hangs in the entry hall way of the administrative building. In their own way many people incurred responsibility. The plaque does not address that that euthanasia victims were not only starved or transported to gassing facilities but killed using barbiturates on site.
Bezirksklinikum Ansbach in German. Bezirkskliniken Mittelfranken. Archived from the original PDF on 3 November Archived PDF from the original on 3 November Two Polish physicians reported at the time that children from ages up to 14 were listed in the booklet, of whom had died. An investigation revealed that the medical records of the children had been falsified, as those records showed a far lower dosage of Luminal given to them than was entered into the Luminal booklet.
For example, the medical records for Marianna N. Brain Research Bulletin. Chemical and Engineering News. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Archived from the original PDF on Organic Reactions, Volume 9. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 18 July Organic Syntheses.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Google Patents. Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. Archived PDF from the original on 12 April Retrieved 30 October The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 16, History Channel. Archived from the original on October 26, Retrieved September 17, BBC News. Retrieved 18 June Anticonvulsants N Fatty acids and related : Valproate Valpromide Valproate pivoxil Vigabatrin. Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate. Glutethimide Methyprylon Pyrithyldione Piperidione.
Tetracyclic antidepressants Mianserin Mirtazapine , etc. Typical antipsychotics Chlorpromazine Thioridazine , etc. Atypical antipsychotics Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone , etc. Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine , etc. Agomelatine Melatonin Ramelteon Tasimelteon. Gabapentin Gabapentin enacarbil Mirogabalin Phenibut Pregabalin. GABA A receptor positive modulators.
Fospropofol Propofol Thymol. Glutethimide Methyprylon Piperidione Pyrithyldione.
Catherine Schaffer has been writing since Her articles have appeared in many medical journals and textbooks. Schaffer holds a Bachelor of Science from Baylor College of Medicine and a physician assistant certificate.
She has written health and nutrition articles for various websites and teaches movement and nutrition to help women overcome chronic diseases and obesity. Barbiturates such as phenobarbital are used to treat epilepsy. These medications are a type of depressant and act on the brain to inhibit the misfiring of the brain in epilepsy.
Barbiturates are also a common drug of abuse. Women who abuse barbiturates can experience memory loss, irritability and changes in alertness.
Pregnant women who abuse barbiturates or use them for epilepsy control, can have complications in the fetus. Barbiturates can cause bleeding in the newborn, according to the Epilepsy Foundation. Phenobarbital blocks vitamin K from crossing the placenta to baby. Vitamin K is a necessary component of clotting factors in the bloodstream--without vitamin K, the blood will not clot. This leaves the infant susceptible to serious bleeding within the first 24 hours of life.
Trauma sustained while coming down the birth canal can cause bleeding in the brain or other internal bleeding. Vitamin K supplementation can help prevent this complication. Women with epilepsy have a 4 to 8 percent chance of having a baby born with a major malformation due to anti-epileptic drugs. Women who do not use anti-epileptic drugs have a 2 to 3 percent chance of having a baby with a major malformation.
Women who abuse barbiturates are at the higher level of risk. Cleft lip, which is an opening in the upper lip, or cleft palate, which is an opening in the roof of the mouth, can occur, according to the Epilepsy Foundation.
Barbiturates can also cause cardiac abnormalities and neural tube defects, which are defects of the spinal cord. Babies born to mothers using barbiturates may also have minor physical defects such as hypertelorism, or very widely spaced eyes. Infants who are born addicted to barbiturates can have respiratory distress, disturbed sleep, sweating, irritability and fever.
They may not feed well and fail to thrive. There is also concern that infants exposed to barbiturate use in pregnancy may be at risk for brain tumors. Parenting Pregnancy Fetal Development. Barbiturate use in pregnancy can cause complications in the newborn. Share this article.