Day when the teams assemble to receive the first puzzles. It concludes with a runaround to find a "coin" hidden on MIT's campus. Each puzzlehunt is created and organized by the winning team of the previous year, which can lead to substantial differences in the rules and structure. While early hunts involved a few dozen linear puzzles, recent hunts have increased in complexity, some involving as many as distinct puzzles arranged in rounds, hidden rounds, and metapuzzles. Recent hunts have also revolved around themes introduced as a skit by organizers at the opening ceremony.
See also Appendix 3 Anos. We have learned the classics and odes on the 21st of the third mouth ; The pavilion was filled with the sons of Hung. It is still, however, Mmn annual mystery hung myxtery Cancer, as before. On Lord Pei and his important place in the Shangqing corpus, see I. My translation of the term cun W will be explained in part 2.
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Doak Barnett From then on, however, the situation went out of control and Sun Dianying decided to conquer Ningxia on his own to prevent his troops from mutinying. Macmillan Educational Co. One belonged to Crookshanks, surely. Darijaya was exiled to Lanzhou until Order of Precious Tripod. Another one of his hobbies was Chinese calligraphy. Instead, it's been the health choices I've made and the love of my wife, that have sustained me. The China Information Publishing Company. But he didn't. Then Ron, Harry and Neville got up, got dressed again, Ron and Harry threw the cloak Mmn annual mystery hung themselves, and Neville pretended to go to the toilet as they slipped outside the dormitory. Annals, Volumes 1—5. It worked. Ma Hongkui suffered from severe diabetes attacks, and in they became so bad that Mmn annual mystery hung was not expected to recover. The Evening Independent.
Steele, though still of Academic grade.
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Esposito Monica. In Memoriam Isabelle Robinet Part 1. On the basis of a re-reading of the. Shang graph P normally read ding T as a graphic variant of ri 0 , he showed that a ritual to the Sun was performed to pray for a good harvest. The present study is divided in two parts: 1. The second part will be published elsewhere. After the crack of dawn, just before the sun rose, he always stood facing due East. Facing the sun he greeted it with a double prostration.
Every day at dawn it was like this and he did this for years. When his father asked him with surprise what kind of rite he was performing, the lord knelt with feet tucked under the buttocks and with his body erect and answered: "I, Yishan, cherish from the bottom of my heart the radiance of the lengthy sunbeams and that is why I worship it. As dawn represents a key moment in many Taoist methods of absorption of solar vapors, in visualization of deities, and in alchemical ingestion of elixirs,13 the solemn prostration of the Shangqing immortal Zhou Yishan JlUttLLl before the rising sun reminds us of the act of devotion by the emperor to the supreme star see Fig.
It was at the suburban sacrifice that [the Son of Heaven], welcoming the arrival of the longest day, gave great thanks to Heaven, and acknowledged the sun as Lord.
Can this royal ceremony be seen as the remnant of an ancient sun cult? Can it be linked to Shang cultic attention to the rising and setting sun? Some scholars, stressing the religious aspect, have identified Shangdi as the sun god,20 but many Chinese scholars regard the Shang cult to the rising and setting sun as having an inherent calendrical and cosmological meaning.
Through this rite the Shang observed the position of the sun rising and setting at the equinoxes and acquired the standard meteorological notion of the four seasons and the knowledge of the four cardinal directions. In this view the rite would have been performed with a "scientific purpose" of distinguishing the four seasons, establishing the four directions, and measuring the sun shadow rather than with an exclusively religious aim of venerating the Sun.
Keightley emphasizes, to demonstrate on the basis of oracle bone records that the Shang used the sun in that way. According to him, this was an expression of the Yin cult for this heavenly body.
In addition, the two key moments of dawn and dusk have also been linked to the worship of two remote ancestors of the Shang or nature deities , Dongmu MM: and Ximu H , who were charged of controlling the rising and setting of the sun in east and west respectively.
Interestingly, Yuyi and Jielin will also end up being identified with Xihe and Changxi. One may thus wonder if the Yuyi and Jielin rites represent an inheritance, in a Taoist key, of an archetypal Shang royal worship of the rising and setting sun.
Could it represent a Taoist interpretation of Shang worship allegedly perpetuated in the Zhou cult of "receiving the rising sun as a guest" and "seeing off the setting sun"? What is the background of this Taoist rite? Does it have the Zhou cosmological connotation of equinoctial or solsticial sacrifices to the sun and moon intended to order space and time and provide a sacred calendar? It does seem that we have here an intermingling of all these ancient beliefs transmitted in later sources.
However, as is to be expected in a Taoist ritual, its calendrical and cosmological significance cannot be dissociated from the main goal: the attainment of the immortality. As Isabelle Robinet has already shown in her monumental work on Shangqing as well as in a series of articles devoted to ecstatic flights by its practitioners,30 sun practices were highly elaborated and developed in Shangqing Taoism. Generally considered along with those of the moon and stars sanguang ELJfc ,31 these practices often encompass three aspects: "the adept accompanies the stars in their sidereal procession, takes nourishment from the exhalations of the stars, and frolics in paradise realms sheltered by the stars where he also meets with the deities living there.
The other two methods are classified as "preparatory" to it, and I can do no better than to refer the reader to Robinet's works. Pei and Zhou share a similar veneration for the sun. As we have seen above, Zhou Yishan is portrayed as practicing every day at dawn the greeting of the sun. They are described as follows:. When all the Five emperors have come, situate further the Yangsui chariot of purple clouds yangsui jiangyun zhi che!
Carried along with the Five emperors, you will soar up to the sun. The same method is presented for the moon; it takes place at dusk and involves observation of the moon. In that case, one holds the breath for the span of nine breath cycles and swallows the moonlight nine times. Lord Pei is said to have practiced both methods at Kongshan Sill, at dawn for the sun and at dusk for the moon.
According to testimony, after the first year of such practice he could see the emperors and their consorts vaguely.
After the second year he could see them riding on the sun and moon and gathering around him. The third year he could enjoy their presence and talk and smile to them, and the fifth year, riding in the chariot in their company, he could finally soar up to the sun and moon.
They are reminiscent of the journey to the sun and moon that the immortal Lord Pei accomplished while riding in the dragon chariot in the company of the solar emperors and their consorts. Here, I will focus on the main figures who gave the name to these practices: Yuyi and Jielin. Who are they? According to Edward Schafer, Yuyi or "Steaming Regalia" is "the name of the spirit who courses with the sun" while his mate "Knotted Spangles" Jielin "runs with the moon.
Instead of simply translating their names, I will first analyze the basic meaning of these compounds, which are not attested except in these names. The Character Yu in Yuyi. Yu W also ffi and W is primarily connected with the density of vegetation and qualifies its luxuriant aspect; it also applies to the accumulation or condensation of clouds and mists. It evokes the movement of steaming vapors, the sparkling or twinkling of lights and, in a wider sense, the effervescence of life in its nascent state.
Associated with the theme of regeneration and "the moment of passing through the new year," the god Yulii shares attributes with Yuyi. On top there is a golden cock that cries as soon as the sun shines. Below there are two gods: one named Yu and the other Lii. Holding reed ropes they are on the lookout for inauspicious ghosts to capture and kill them.
Yu and Lii thus are the exorcist guardians of a solar tree carrying on its crest a golden cock. They are intimately related to the moment of sunrise. Observing is an important attribute of these guardians who are capable, thanks to their piercing gaze, of seizing any lingering ghosts with their ropes. The exorcistic function of these custodians also has a connection with Huangdi and the Great exorcism danuo. It is only after the establishment of the peachwood figurine of these two guardians and the performance of related exorcistic rites that the emperor could safely go on his tour.
This happened after having observed the auspicious signs from heaven. All these activities have an unexpected connection with Yuyi and Jielin. Related, among other things, to the festivals of welcoming and seeing off the year, they point to important characteristics of Yuyi and Jielin and their eponymous Taoist rites. It is not by chance that Yuyi is linked with the Fusang tree and its mythology as well as with the golden cock of Yu and Lii.
The Character Yi. The term yi refers to solemn bearing or demeanor in ceremony, so-called "etiquette. Eryi or liangyi are the two cosmic rulers or regulators par excellence: the sun and moon, emblems of Heaven and Earth and indicators of the celestial computation of time.
As is well-known, the term liangyi refers to the basic strokes composing the 64 hexagrams of the Yijing, i. As we have seen, the terms yu and yi are both connected with activities of measuring, prognostication, exorcistic rituals, and New Year customs. While yu symbolizes the spring season, the beginning of life, and rebirth, yi alludes to the.
This act was performed at the beginning of the year and joined with other methods of divination and observation of astronomical and meteorological phenomena. But how should we translate the term Yuyi?
Edward Schafer proposed "Steaming Regalia. It refers not only to the ruler or regulator and its consort , but also to the act itself of regulating or measuring i. The Character Jie in Jielin. Like yi, the term jie is also connected with the idea of measurement: it indicates the knots made in a rope to count the passing of the time. As the magic of knots has been discussed in many studies, I will point here only to two of.
Jie may recall the exorcistic power of the ropes of Yu and Lii capable of seizing inauspicious ghosts and releasing, at the same time, the promise of rebirth of a fortunate New Year.
These "knots" are the roots of the mortal condition but, if untied kaijie , usher in rebirth within an immortal embryo. Celestial forces or gods descend to earth in the shape of the "knotting" of the primordial qi. S8 In a comparable meaning, jie is also applied to the crystallization of halos or rainbows by referring to the process of transformation of matter into light.
The Character Lin and its Variants. The character lin has many variants which have been discussed by the literati over centuries. Edward Schafer translated Jielin as Knotted Spangles, a translation which literally renders the meaning oijie and its value of magic knots without ignoring the luminous character and the possible association of Jielin with a scaled creature. It is important to note that the variant lin M luster of jade is primarily used for expressing the quality of moonlight.
The congealed light of the opalescent gem illuminating, like a pale lantern, the nights of poets dreaming of visiting its palace is a theme endlessly evoked in Chinese literature. But Wu declined saying that he was unable to. Then Chang'e demanded the same of the toad and the jade rabbit. The toad emitted an unceasing light and the rabbit pounded the elixir of immortality, and finally the moonlight regained its full radiance.
According to this story the term Jielin Bundled Luster is the title conferred by the Jade Emperor upon Chang'e, the goddess of the moon. It alludes to the renewal of the moonlight and the re-establishment of its radiant corona. After this brief summary, the question still remains: who are Yuyi and Jielin? Are they simply esoteric names for the sun and moon?
Do they refer to the names of ancient gods or immortals, or do they harbor further secret meanings? Yuyi and Jielin: Who are they? This explanation comes just after the following stanza:. Soaring up high to the sun and moon is our supreme path, Yuyi and Jielin kindly provide mutual protection.
Liangqiu zi comments by saying:. Yuyi is the immortal who soared up to the sun; Jielin is the immortal who soared up to the moon. Other passages mention Yuyi and Jielin among appellations for the sun and moon:.
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The China journal, Volume The China Journal Pub. The Pre-Marxist Period, — Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Dudoignon Devout societies vs. Retrieved June 19, Department of Far Eastern History Papers on Far Eastern history, Issues 39— Canberra: Dept.
Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. The China monthly, Volumes 3—5. The China monthly incorporated. Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume Macmillan Educational Co. May 17, Retrieved April 11, The Evening Independent. Retrieved December 12, The memoirs of Li Tsung-jen.
Westview Press. Chennault Fights Communism". Petersburg Times. The Southeast Missourian. Southeast Conference Annals, Volumes 1—5. The Conference. China at War: Regions of China, illustrated ed. Stanford University Press. November 1, China pilot: flying for Chiang and Chennault. Globe Pequot. Dissertation abstracts international: The humanities and social sciences.
University Microfilms International. Retrieved November 28, Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, — China at war, Volumes 10— The China Information Publishing Company. Modern China. Doak Barnett China on the eve of Communist takeover.
Volume 3 of New Horizons in Islamic Studies. Researches on the Hui. Retrieved July 13, Volume of Islamkundliche Untersuchungen. Asia, Volume 2. Retrieved June 5, World biography, Part 2. Institute for Research in Biography. The Miami News. October 28, Los Angeles Times. Art Text HK Ltd. Warlord Era. Republic of China — Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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Ongoing Terrorism in the Occupied Territories. What Constructs the Suicide Bomber? Torpedoing the Peace Process. Roots of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Executive SummaryARY. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the escalation of the Israel-Palestine conflict in the year , its specific concurrent causes, its general political background, and its probable future trajectory if current events continue on their course.
The report analyses the broad historical context of the conflict, including the Oslo peace process, Israeli policy in the Occupied Territories, and the policies of the Palestinian Authority PA in the s.
This analysis provides the basis on which to elucidate the key reasons for the exacerbation of violence and repression, which consist largely of multiple Israeli programmes of domination in the Occupied Territories.
The ultimate result has been a cycle of violence, with Israeli State terrorism being preponderant in scale according to a comparative study of statistical data on Israel and Palestinian deaths. In this connection, the nature and impact of Israel Defence Force actions in the assault on Jenin refugee camp are assessed and documented, including a review of the controversy over whether a massacre occurred.
In this connection, the report examines the sociological and psychological conditions in the Occupied Territories that have led to the rise in Palestinian militancy and the corresponding terror tactic of suicide bombing. There is a consistent pattern indicating that the recent Hamas terrorist atrocities against Israel are deliberately provoked by the Israeli military in order to manufacture a pretext for brutal Israeli policies in the Occupied Territories.
This report draws from mainstream press sources, human rights reports, and the work of leading experts on the Middle East. It is being issued in an effort to generate public awareness of the past and probable future trajectory of the Middle East conflict, in the hope of contributing to a worldwide movement to forestall and prevent a regional humanitarian catastrophe.
In this connection, it is hoped that this report plays the role of a comprehensive introductory guide to the Israel-Palestine conflict, to thus be used as an educational tool with which to inform, and ultimately, reform.
Please distribute this report widely. This myth is achieved by the constant repetition, and distortion, of the following concept: that the State of Israel is under siege from Palestinian terrorists embarking on incessant suicide missions, resulting in the mass terrorisation of Israeli civilians.
The picture of Israel as a victim, rather than a perpetrator of terrorism, can only emerge from a presupposed pro-Israeli agenda, which focuses principally on the killing of Israelis by Palestinian suicide bombers, while completely blocking out all consciousness of the killing of Palestinians by the Israeli Defence Force IDF. To understand the reality of the Middle East conflict as objectively as possible, it is essential to inspect and compare the entire spectrum of violence committed by all actors within the conflict.
Only in this way can the reality and scale of terrorism on both sides be clarified, and responsibility for the violence be thus proportionally assigned. This should be done comprehensively by drawing together the historical and contemporary record of conflict between Israeli and Palestinian forces.
We may begin with the current crisis. Israeli policymakers knew the grave price to the civilian population after the incursion into the first refugee camp. Yet they continue to engage in actions that constitute grave breaches of international humanitarian law.
In the same period, a total of Israeli civilians were killed by Palestinians. Thus, the approximate ratio of fatalities between Palestinians and Israelis for this period is In other words, Israeli violence resulting in death against Palestinians is approximately 5 times that of Palestinian violence resulting in death against Israelis. Thus, the ratio of casualties between Palestinians and Israelis is a shocking In other words, Israeli violence against Palestinians resulting in civilian casualties is 44 times that of Palestinian violence against Israelis.
The only logical conclusion one can draw from this analysis is that the statistical data proves very clearly that Israel bears overwhelming responsibility for violence and terrorism in this conflict, as a matter of record. The implications have been duly noted by respected observers, such as the Israeli political sociologist Dr.
One hour after Arafat declared his support of a cease-fire and wished the Jews a Happy Passover feast, a suicide bomber exploded himself in an hotel in Netanya, killing 22 innocent Jews celebrating Passover. Arafat was blamed as responsible for this act, and the present IDF offensive has been justified through this accusation.
Having undertaken a comparative analysis of the violence by all actors in the conflict, it is clear that the vast majority of acts of terrorism are committed by the State of Israel against Palestinians in the Occupied Territories. The mass terrorisation of the Palestinian people by the Israeli Defence Force far outweighs in scale and impact Palestinian suicide bombings in Israel. When is he going to be defined a terrorist too?
How long will the world ignore the Palestinian cry that all they want is freedom and independence? When will it stop neglecting the fact that the goal of the Israeli Government is not security, but the continued occupation and subjugation of the Palestinian people? It is absurd to imagine that such a grueling and brutal occupation that consists not only of military violence, but also of socio-economic repression, can continue without the indigenous population resisting that occupation with military force.
The brutal policies of the apartheid regime in South Africa, for example, inevitably created a climate conducive to black resistance, which faced with violent police-state repression quickly and predictably responded in kind with violent protest, accompanied by numerous assassination attempts, ambushes, attacks on civilians, and so on. Within Israel I witnessed the increasing polarization of Israeli society by the occupation; the growing, virulent racism of new generations.
It is a matter of record that Palestinian military resistance has intensified in direct response to the escalation of Israeli State terrorism against Palestinian civilians.
Cantarow observes:. Suicide bombing is a post-Oslo phenomenon triggered by the doubling of settlement population after the accords were signed and by the dawning realization that Oslo consolidated a South African-style plan for permanent Bantustanization of the West Bank.
The Sheikh tells me that Hamas orders suicide bombers, under its military wing, Iz al-Din al-Qassam, to attack Israeli civilians targets because Israeli troops and armed settlers routinely attack Palestinian civilians. Hedges further notes that the Hamas policy of targeting Israeli civilians within the recognised borders of the State, did not exist for over a decade during the occupation. In fact, this policy emerged in the aftermath of consistent Israeli terror attacks on Palestinian civilians.
It began to attack individual Israeli civilians after a Jewish settler, Baruch Goldstein, gunned down twenty-nine Muslim worshipers in the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron. The fact that the real roots of Palestinian militancy are embedded in the consistently brutal nature of Israeli policy in the Occupied Territories has been further elaborated in an authoritative study by the U.
The FDR is essentially a relatively autonomous U. The FDR has served the U. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism , commissioned in June by the National Intelligence Council and presented in September , draws from the work of numerous experts on terrorism, both inside and outside of government.
However, Hamas is also a large socioreligious movement involved in communal work within the Palestinian refugee camps and responsible for many civic-action projects. Indeed, this provision of socio-communal services to Palestinians is what grants Hamas its popularity, rather than anything else. Consequently, Hamas has massive grass-roots support. Hamas was reported in early to enjoy solid support among 15 percent to 20 percent of the 2 million Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank.
According to Professor Ehud Sprinzak of Hebrew University, Hamas is so popular among 20 to 30 percent of Palestinians not because it has killed and wounded hundreds of Israelis but because it has provided such important community services for the Palestinian population. Hamas supporters reportedly cross both tribal patterns and family patterns among Palestinians. Rather, this strategy has been adopted in direct response to Israeli policies of violence and repression that have led to widespread despair, frustration and misery among Palestinians.
The FDR thus concludes, like Israeli terrorism expert Ehud Sprinzak, that the only way to prevent Hamas suicide terror attacks against Israel, is for Israel to desist from its own policies of aggression and expansion in the Occupied Territories:. Rather, the group has resorted to this tactic as a way of exacting tactical revenge for humiliating Israeli actions. Salameh thus contradicted what former Labor Party prime minister Shimon Peres and other Israeli leaders had contended, that the bombings resulted from a strategic decision by Hamas to bring down the Israeli government.
According to Sprinzak, the wave of Hamas suicide bombings in late , the third in the series, started in response to a series of Israeli insults of Palestinians that have taken place since the beginning of , such as unilateral continuation of settlements. Similarly, Sprinzak notes, Hamas did not initially pursue a policy of bombing city buses. Hamas resorted to this tactic only after February , when Baruch Goldstein, an Israeli physician and army reserve captain, massacred 29 Palestinians praying in a Hebron shrine.
Thus, an analysis of the pattern of Hamas waves of suicide bombing inside Israel demonstrates that every such wave is perpetrated in response to Israeli aggression, and never occurs unsolicited. Their nearly automatic need to disavow what are essentially racist assumptions — that they do not value life as much as we do, that the intifada is not a struggle for national liberation, for a state of their own but a jihad to drive the Jews into the sea — is, I think, a sad reflection of the discourse that occurs over here on their plight.
Although it is right to condemn the terrorist attacks against Israeli civilians, we have chosen to stereotype an entire community based on the actions of its extremists, ignoring the deplorable and humiliating conditions that could possibly help us understand why human beings could commit such atrocities.
In doing so, Israeli policy of itself has guaranteed the rise of Palestinian militancy, and the suicide bombings that have come with it, by rendering political dialogue ineffective and meaningless with respect to Palestinian rights. Simultaneously, the collective Israeli political consciousness, under government influence, has virtually erased all memory of how Israeli policy has contributed to the very brutal socio-economic conditions that are conducive to creating a psychology of despair, misery and desperation, which can eventually lead to Palestinian acts of terrorism.
In other words, people turn to bio-religious explanations, not social or historical ones. Neither did Israeli political consciousness listen at the beginning of the intifada when the Palestinians pointed to the excessive use of Israeli military force against the first demonstrations. Now, 22 months later, one can here and there find comments by journalists and politicians who in hindsight admit that under Ehud Barak and Shaul Mofaz, excessive use was already made of lethal methods.
If there was indeed a desire to control the whirlpool of violence, that harsh military response was a mistake. Why should they forget the civilians killed by IDF fire at roadblocks and in their homes, not during gunfights?
But it has been rare for children to attempt to repeat the activities of Hamas and the other armed Palestinian groups, such as Islamic Jihad and the military wings of Fatah.
As Jewish American political scientist Stephen Shalom records:. But the Hamas et al. To be sure, Hamas has been growing in strength as a result of the inability of the Palestinian Authority to deliver a better life for Palestinians. If there were a truly independent Palestinian state, one can assume that Hamas would find far fewer volunteers for its suicide squads.
So how can the rise of Palestinian militancy be stopped? Only by isolating and eliminating its root cause and context. Israel could, for example, offer the PA the removal of a number of small hilltop settlements in exchange for a period of non-belligerency and unequivocal renunciation of suicide bombing. They hoped to achieve their aspirations for independence without resorting to terror. To state this truth is not to condone terrorism but to note the obvious fact that this government, with its focus on violent retaliation entirely unrelated to a political process which offers a viable alternative to violence, is putting its citizens at vastly increased risk.
It is to argue the political and moral bankruptcy of policies pursued in the name of greater security which in fact achieve the very opposite. And it is to argue that policies which reinforce the despair of Palestinians by killing their hope for an end to the occupation will inevitably fuel escalating violence.
There is only one way out of the current spiral of violence. The accords also instituted a 5-year transitional period during which Israel would gradually withdraw its troops and administrative structures from the major Palestinian population centers.
The climax of this transition period would herald the agreement on a permanent settlement based on UN Security Council Resolutions and These resolutions order Israel to completely withdraw its forces from the Occupied Territories conquered in There is no doubt that the Oslo accords, within the framework of international law including United Nations resolutions, were supposed to result in a just two-state solution, thus entailing the emergence of a viable and independent Palestinian state.
In his corresponding letter, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin agreed only to recognise the PLO as the representative of the Palestine people and to begin negotiations with it — but there was no Israeli acknowledgement of the legally binding implications of UN resolutions, nor any reference to any official recognition of the Palestinian right to a state.
In other words, Israel would retain settlements and military bases deep inside the Occupied Territories in the Jordan River valley. The problems of this arrangement were to be resolved by enhanced capital investment, access to regional markets and expanded opportunities for profit. The boundaries of potential Palestinian Bantustans are now clearly visible. Even if the Oslo process advances beyond the current impasse, the territorial basis for establishing a Palestinian state capable of exercising significant sovereign powers may no longer exist.
Oslo, in other words, due to its ambiguity with regards to the crucial issue of a Palestinian state, had granted Israel a cover of legitimacy to maneuver outside the requirements of international law. Gaping holes in the Oslo accords included lack of agreement on the legitimate borders of the Palestinian state-to-be; the problem of the illegal Israeli settlements; the status of illegally occupied Jerusalem; the legally binding right of return of Palestinian refugees; and the division of water in the West Bank.