Historical dictionary of Kosovo. Demonstrations by thousands of angry Albanians and Serbs mobilised to stop them crossing the river degenerated kosvoo rioting and gunfire, leaving at least eight Albanians dead and at least injured. Iri kosovo private illustrated ed. Vanuatu August 01, In the southern municipality exists also 5 upper secondary schools. Archived from the original on 3 February Mitrovica became the focus for ethnic clashes between the two communities, exacerbated by the presence of nationalist extremists on both Iri kosovo private.
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We have helped local leaders hold national Legacy of kain defiance game freaks accountable for including municipal interests and concerns in national policy formulation. Through our work with civil society and domestic election observer groups we are strengthening electoral processeshelping Bangladeshi groups to monitor candidate compliance with campaign finance laws, which will be used to develop recommendations for campaign finance reform. Through our democratic governance work, we bring together government officials and citizens to address community issues. Through our work with women, youth and persons with disabilities we are increasing participation in the political process and expanding their access to politics, leadership and government regardless of age, gender or physical ability. Since Mongolia embarked on its democratic path inits widespread Doing the eifel tower sex position Iri kosovo private for democratic reform has secured its status as one of the few countries in Asia that can boast dynamic institutions of democracy. Our Leadership and Excellence in Advanced Politics LEAP Sapac model, enables us to support our work in the region and to share a variety of experiences from democracies throughout Europe with our partners around the world. Through our regional initiative, we work with lawmakers and Iri kosovo private staff to increase their knowledge of oversight responsibilitiesproviding exposure to best practices, trainings and tools to build capacity. The Evolution of Private Label in a Transforming Marketplace Consumers continue to Iri kosovo private to make ends meet, assuring the popularity of reasonably priced private label brands. Together with our Chinese partners, we work to expand the dialogue on civil society, rights awareness, political participation and public policy. Through this SMS-based scorecard, constituents have the opportunity to assess the performance of local-level representatives and communicate their views and expectations to them. From toIRI conducted political Iri kosovo private development activities and supported the peace process in Sudan by strengthening the institutional capacity of transitional governing and political institutions that emerged following the landmark Comprehensive Peace Agreement CPA. Our civic and voter education program is strengthening electoral processes by informing citizens — specifically illiterate voters, women leaders in rural villages and young voters Iri kosovo private how to register and vote, and how to participate as an active citizen once elections are over.
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- Following elections, using a democratic governance and social accountability manual and corresponding curriculum, the Chapter builds the capacity of newly-elected women local councilors to effectively serve their constituents.
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Australia July 08, 4. Kiribati Republic of Kiribati June 04, 7. Papua New Guinea September 21, Solomon Islands May 23, Vanuatu August 01, Tuvalu September 14, Samoa October 22, Nauru Republic of Nauru February 22, Peru November 14, Cyprus Republic of Cyprus November 17, Maldives December 16, Poland December 17, Greece February 14, Costa Rica June 15, Colombia August 05, Russian Federation August 06, Singapore August 28, Denmark September 17, Slovenia Republic of Slovenia October 19, Iceland Republic of Iceland January 25, Finland Republic of Finland January 26, Seychelles February 02, Barbados March 23, Argentina April 23, Belize April 30, Luxembourg July 20, Italy September 24, Kingdom of Thailand October 29, Malta February 08, Andorra February 23, Cape Verde December 01, Ukraine December 22, Brunei Darussalam January 17, Romania January 29, Belgium May 29, Turkmenistan October 8, Republic of Mauritius October 23, Palau August 01, Oriental Republic of Uruguay December 02, Azerbaijan February 18, Georgia February 18, Tajikistan February 18, Federative Republic of Brazil July 27, Kingdom of Morocco September 13, Republic of Estonia July 12, Cook Islands September 03, Kosovo October 24, Kazakhstan August 21, Mongolia May 23, Cuba September 28, Principality of Monaco September 29, Kyrgyz Republic December 22, Cambodia January 20, Myanmar April 21, Guatemala July 20, El Salvador September 22, Subscribe to our Newsletter Receive recent news and never miss an update.
Our current program explores local government service delivery provision in informal settlements in mining areas of the North West province. We also support the ability of women leaders to play an active role in improving their social environment by promoting transparency, accountability and rule of law. Today, IRI works to strengthen political parties across Somalia to support their role in peaceful and inclusive political processes. Enter security code:. We also highlight the importance of building relationships and communication mechanisms among civil society, elected officials, local media and citizens. Since democratic elections in , Honduras has been developing stronger national institutions, to build competencies in the three branches of government, as well as improve services in national ministries while challenged by corruption, lagging development and high levels of crime.
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About us. Corporate Information. In April , the Prime Minister of Laos signed a Decree of Associations, allowing civil society organizations to register and legal entities.
As groups began navigating the process, we partnered with these burgeoning nonprofit associations to help them develop the organizational and technical skills necessary to accomplish their goals. On May 9, , Malaysia underwent a historic democratic transition from the Barisan Nasional coalition—which had governed the country for 61 years—to the Pakatan Harapan coalition.
The new government will face an uphill challenge in addressing key issues facing the country, including endemic corruption, rising costs of living and limited employment opportunities for youth.
Since Mongolia embarked on its democratic path in , its widespread public support for democratic reform has secured its status as one of the few countries in Asia that can boast dynamic institutions of democracy. Throughout this period, Mongolia has created and strengthened democratic institutions, including the national legislature, the judiciary, political parties and civil society.
With a long-standing presence in Mongolia, we have established a reputation as experts working with all political parties and civil society organizations, both in Ulaanbaatar and at the grassroots level in provinces across Mongolia. Working with the municipal government of Ulaanbaatar, we are helping them bolster open and transparent government in the capital city.
Our programs provide technical expertise and facilitate initiatives, led by the government and civil society, to reduce corruption, improving transparency and accountability. Through our parliamentary strengthening program, we provide technical legislative expertise and advice to members of parliament, the State Great Hural, to improve their ability to effectively represent their constituents.
We have worked across Mongolia to bring together local government officials and citizens to address community concerns at the provincial, county and town levels, improving government responsiveness to citizen priorities. To ensure political parties are strong representative institutions that can serve as effective advocates and representatives of citizens , we work with political parties to increase the participation of youth and women.
Our work strengthens the engagement of youth leadership by providing mentorship, expertise and advice. Burma is a nation in transition from military autocracy to representative democracy.
As Burma enters the next phase in its democratic evolution, continued engagement will be crucial to helping sustain the momentum of the past few years. Providing assistance to this end will shore up regional stability, expand economic opportunities and serve vital American interests.
IRI has provided assistance to civil society organizations and individuals in Burma for the past 25 years, and opened an office in Burma in In so doing, IRI is helping Burma to prepare for the upcoming elections, and supporting the Burmese people as they strive to build a stable democratic society.
Our Women and Power initiative, empowers Nepalese women at the grassroots level with the skills needed to take on greater leadership roles. Since Thailand became a constitutional monarchy in , the Kingdom has been governed under 18 constitutions and has experienced 19 military coups.
Following seven months of political protests and the annulment of the February snap elections, the military formally took control of Thailand's government on May 22, Since the coup, the military junta has outlined a plan to restore order to the Kingdom which includes reconciliation, reform and elections, which will not be called until October at the earliest.
Working with emerging women leaders in civil society as well as regular citizens eager to participate in the political process to improve their communities, we enhance the role of women who are largely underrepresented in governing institutions throughout the country.
Since , we have supported civic education efforts , bolstered political pluralism , increased the participation of women and youth in the political process, strengthened the capacity of parliament to serve as an independent and representative body and conducted public opinion polling and election support in all 13 districts of Timor-Leste.
To build responsive, transparent and effective local government institutions , we partner with municipal councils and community groups throughout Sri Lanka. We provide a forum for local elected officials to share best practices with their peers, develop innovative solutions to complex urban challenges and speak with a collective voice on national policy that meets local government needs. Our work in Sri Lanka also includes partnership with the U. We began working in Cambodia in to strengthen accountability, expand transparency and increase access to information.
Political instability in Fiji has led to four coups since , authoritarian suppression of political and civil rights, economic hardship and isolation. In recent years, the Fijian government has initiated constitutional and political reform efforts to return the country to a stable democratic footing. Our efforts, along with those party poll watchers and poll workers, encouraged a free, fair and credible electoral process, enhanced the legitimacy of the process in the eyes of Fijians and offered constructive recommendations for continued improvement.
Through a series of workshops on citizen engagement, democratic governance and constituent outreach techniques, we worked with newly-elected members of parliament MP to understand and represent the needs of their constituents.
Despite many democratic challenges, we have worked with political opposition parties since , helping them to build stronger organizations, improve communication with citizens and supporting greater participation of youth and women. We focus on developing the next generation of leaders by equipping youth and women with the skills to actively engage in the political process.
We offer workshops and cross-cultural exchanges where youth can freely discuss challenging issues, build presentation skills and network with like-minded activists throughout the region. In IRI-sponsored regional forums, democratic political party leaders and activists from Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine are sharing best practices and looking for solutions to common challenges unique to post-Soviet countries. Through these forums, we assist in the development of an alliance of Eurasian democratic political parties where exchanges of information allow them to learn from one another.
Since , we have supported the development of a multi-party political system and helped parties develop their regional party structures. We also work with youth, women and other marginalized groups to help them engage in the political process and take on a greater role in party activities. Our programs provide a forum where party activists focus on developing strategic plans, strengthening organizational structures, recruiting new party members, and developing and communicating messages that resonate with voters.
We work the youth wings of the parties to become active participants in the political process. Since , we have worked with women candidates to help them develop successful campaign strategies and tactics. In addition to conducting leadership schools, the Chapter has implemented what they learned in WDN workshops on advocacy and fundraising to host charity events to aid Georgian orphanages. Through our Baltic-Eurasia Inter-Parliamentary Training Institute, we bring together parliamentarians and parliamentary staff from across Eurasia with their counterparts in the Lithuanian Seimas , for exchanges and workshops on strengthening legislative skills and parliamentary practices.
Since , we have supported the development of democratic institutions in Kyrgyzstan. We support the development of a multi-party political system with strong, unified national political parties. Our work focuses on strengthening political party capacity to address key areas of citizen concern, particularly by encouraging the development of issue-based platforms and campaigns and improving political party organization and management with a special focus on regional offices.
During elections, we strengthen electoral processes by working closely with parties and civil society to provide candidate and campaign workshops as well as extensive, nationwide election observer training for political party members, candidate volunteers and civil activists.
We provide active youth with training on leadership and civic education and encourage them to undertake community projects that utilize these skills. Through our democratic governance work, we bring together government officials and citizens to address community issues. This collaborative effort improves government transparency and responsiveness , and increases constituent voices in municipal affairs. Using an effective cross-border approach, we draw upon talents across Europe, promoting cooperation and information sharing on institution building, political processes, policy development, government communication and citizen participation.
Through a series of workshops — including the Leadership Institute for Central and Eastern Europe LICEE , Citycraft and the Euro-Mediterranean Leadership Institute organized in partnership with the Dutch Eduardo Frei Foundation — we are helping the next generation of leaders gain important skills in modern campaign and communications techniques, the role of values in politics, youth politics, governance and the role of women in any successful democratic transition or consolidation.
Our European Political Party Foundations and Institutes initiative helps parties establish, develop and expand the work of foundations and institutes that provide training, policy development, and advocacy and analytical support to parties and their leadership. Our Leadership and Excellence in Advanced Politics LEAP Team, enables us to support our work in the region and to share a variety of experiences from democracies throughout Europe with our partners around the world.
LEAP volunteers are recognized for their expertise in areas ranging from political communication and voter outreach to democratic governance. Through our Lithuania-based Baltic-Eurasia Inter-Parliamentary Training Institute, we bring together parliamentarians and parliamentary staff from across Eurasia with their counterparts in the Lithuanian Seimas , for exchanges and workshops on strengthening legislative skills and parliamentary practices.
Starting in , focus turned to helping parties gain the skills needed to compete in elections and boosting voter turnout. We are also focused on strengthening the electoral process through workshops and trainings for party election observers, to equip them with the information and tools necessary for them to effectively monitor the elections.
Launched in , the WDN Moldova Country Chapter brings together women leaders from politics, civil society and business to address issues facing women and promotes and encourages women to seek leadership positions in the Moldovan government. We focus on helping democratic political parties build stronger organizations, improve communication with citizens, strengthening the ability of civil society institutions and grassroots organizers to advocate for change and increase citizen participation in political processes and fostering ongoing engagement between European and Russian civic and political actors.
We support the development of a competitive, multi-party political system with effective, responsive national political parties.
Utilizing reputable, methodologically-sound public opinion polling, we work with pro-democracy opposition parties to develop issue-based platforms and campaign strategies. Additionally, our programs focus on equipping pro-democracy opposition parties with the tools necessary to strengthen organizational structures, develop effective communication strategies and navigate the increasingly restrictive electoral environment in Russia.
Through IRI-facilitated legislative exchanges with both the Lithuanian and the European Parliament, Russian pro-democracy opposition parties share best practices of transparent and responsive legislative parties.
And in IRI-sponsored regional forums, democratic political party leaders and activists from Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine are sharing best practices and looking for solutions to common challenges unique to post-Soviet countries. We support the development of an active, representative civil society with effective and participatory advocacy groups and grassroots organizations.
Through trainings on communication technologies, data visualization, and civic education and outreach, we provide civil society organizations with the skills necessary to develop the next generation of civic leaders who are capable of establishing constituent-focused processes and advocating for reforms.
Since , we have worked with women leaders to help them develop successful campaign strategies, communication technologies and fundraising skills. Since , we have been at the forefront of working at the regional level to strengthen multi-party political systems, enhance civil society, promote democratic governance and foster unity efforts in Ukraine. We have a long history of working with political parties to strengthen their structures at the regional level.
To further this work and help parties enhance cooperation with civil society , we also bring these groups together to resolve local issues in a collaborative manner. Through IRI-sponsored public hearing, the gap between citizens and elected officials is being bridged and citizen participation in the decision-making process is increasing.
In recent years, we have expanded the program to foster cooperation and unity between east and west Ukraine. Through study tours, where local officials and youth have an opportunity to interact on a personal level with their counterparts from different parts of the country, we are strengthening interregional relationships between reform-oriented officials and young activists.
Having observed every parliamentary and presidential election since Ukraine became independent in , and through our trainings for political party poll watchers, we are strengthening the electoral process and helping to ensure Ukraine has open, transparent elections. IRI has supported the development of good governance in Armenia since IRI regularly conducts public opinion surveys , providing insights into public attitudes on critical issues facing Armenia.
Since , we have supported the development of a multi-party political system in Macedonia. Our work in Turkey focuses on public opinion research and increasing the political participation of women and youth. In order to respond to growing political and social challenges in the country, we have introduced policy-oriented political debates to explore a particular topic in detail among a broad spectrum of stakeholders.
Using survey research to inform policy development is an integral tool of our program. We conduct regular public-opinion polls on a wide range of local, national and international issues for consultation with program partners. Our Youth Political Academies focus on increasing political participation of young people and helping them gain the skills needed to reach decision-making positions in the political arena.
The academies give access to high-level Turkish politicians, academics, experts and volunteers from our networks for a several hundred young politicians each year. Building on the success of the Youth Political Academies, we have launched a training series to assist politically engaged women to advance their political potential.
The Chapter has also undertaken a nationwide campaign to end violence against women, using a specially designed training curriculum and book outlining statistics and facts about gender and domestic violence. We have worked in Bolivia since to promote stronger relationships between governing authorities and citizens.
We have helped municipalities coordinate among themselves to solve local issues, as well as advance their interests on a national scale. We have helped local leaders hold national counterparts accountable for including municipal interests and concerns in national policy formulation. We work with civil society to promote discussion, debate and the incorporation of key citizen issues into campaigns and local policy-making.
We help create an environment where political differences are set aside, allowing for the identification of viable solutions , and the development of a greater appreciation for citizen involvement in the democratic process. Bolivians want leadership education and opportunities. This is especially true of women and marginalized groups in rural areas where openings to serve in positions of authority are few. To help make that possible, we work with citizens through civic forums and by building advocacy skills, and with civic leaders and politicians to enhance awareness of citizen interests and ways incorporate them into policies.
Through our democratic governance initiatives, we have worked with departmental and municipal governments to introduce governance best practices that improve communications with citizens and service delivery. We supported the creation of Salones de Transparencia that promote open government at the municipal level , and have helped Afro-Colombian legislators and civil society organizations establish mechanisms to benefit their particular communities.
In , we began a pilot program to strengthen dialogue between citizens, municipal and regional authorities and industry representatives in extractive resource zones so that each sector can peacefully reconcile its interests with one another and work toward mutually acceptable goals in effective resource management.
In these localities, IRI also works with civil society organizations to strengthen their capacity in public dialogue , participation, and impact. As part of regional programming, we work with political actors, think tanks and policy experts to develop substantive policy proposals, helping political parties and elected officials effectively communicate policy proposals in ways that voters can understand.
Cubans are isolated from other societies by sea and from one another by restrictions on freedom of movement, basic rights and opportunities. We help them overcome the absence of a free press, the lack of Internet infrastructure and the high cost of internal and external communications. We support interaction among Cubans around social, cultural and civic themes. We have conducted countrywide public opinion research in Cuba since to enhance civic groups' awareness of citizen interests and concerns.
A new law being debated would lift term limits for all political offices. In this context, we help local governments identify and respond to citizen concerns, assist national leaders to incorporate local inputs into their policies and campaign platforms, and help local and national political actors engage in issue-based policy discussions.
Working with advocacy networks, we help establish issue forums that encourage greater awareness of citizen needs. Connecting local elected officials with their counterparts in the National Assembly, media and think tanks, we facilitate consideration of local interests, concerns and ideas in the national dialogue.
Working with academics, think tanks and policy makers, we gather local and national democratic stakeholders around substantive policy issues, providing tools and space to promote policy discussions on issues of shared concern. Since , our programs have strengthened the foundations of democratic governance and helped lawmakers and municipal officials implement innovative programming that responds to citizen needs and priorities.
We partner with municipalities and national municipal associations to improve service delivery and promote citizen inclusion. Through workshops for government officials and citizens, we promote community engagement, local economic development, collaborative public safety efforts and transparency. Building on the success of our democratic governance initiatives, we launched Smart Governance , our digital governance initiative, in to promote utilization of low-cost information and communication technologies to overcome particular governing challenges.
Coaching for mayors, municipal councils and citizens on digital tools, helps communities improve citizen outreach, information sharing and economic development. Through our regional initiative, we work with lawmakers and legislative staff to increase their knowledge of oversight responsibilities , providing exposure to best practices, trainings and tools to build capacity.
We tap regional academics, think tanks and policy experts to share experiences in overseeing the executive branch, conduct research in the formulation of laws and budgets and identify ways to improve legislative processes. Since , our programs have helped parties effectively and ethically compete in campaigns and helped women and youth become stronger community leaders.
We partner with municipalities and national municipal associations to improve service delivery and encourage greater citizen inclusion , such as workshops that promote community engagement, local economic development, collaborative public safety efforts and transparency.
We adapt best practices to address needs in public safety; helping diverse interest groups develop collaborative solutions. Our work with the Guatemalan Congress strengthens oversight skills and promotes transparency and accountability. Since democratic elections in , Honduras has been developing stronger national institutions, to build competencies in the three branches of government, as well as improve services in national ministries while challenged by corruption, lagging development and high levels of crime.
Since , IRI has worked with government officials and civil society to strengthen governance, accountability and awareness in Mexico.
At the local level, IRI has helped municipalities adopt best practices in governance and aided the development of local transparency commissions.
With IRI support, civil society organizations are advocating for judicial reforms and citizen security platforms that will help develop public policy proposals on domestic and school violence. IRI also brings together local congressional leaders, municipal authorities, private sector actors and university partners to raise public awareness of judicial reform and related issues.
Through federal-level policy forums, for example, IRI works to enhance collaboration between the federal government, political actors and civil society groups on the topics of criminal justice, crime prevention and human rights. Our work engages youth in civic activism , promotes greater understanding of democratic processes and increases political and citizen civic awareness. Through our work with women and marginalized groups, we are helping to engage citizens and local governments in addressing the needs of these communities.
We also support the ability of women leaders to play an active role in improving their social environment by promoting transparency, accountability and rule of law. Our work with independent media is helping them build the capacity to improve civic discourse and provide impartial, informative public affairs programming. Since its return to civilian elected leadership in , Panama has made strides in consolidating democratic processes and demonstrated incremental progress in transparency and the delivery of services.
Building on the success of our democratic governance initiatives throughout the region, our Smart Governance initiative promotes utilization of low-cost information and communication technologies to overcome particular governing challenges.
Panama also serves as a hub for regional conferences and meetings. In , we convened regional leaders, innovators and civil society representatives in Panama City to define essential characteristics of democratic rule and how to strengthen them in the region. IRI targets good governance challenges in Paraguay using a unique scorecard to measure service delivery and utilization of best practices in municipal government.
We have also employed our in-house Vulnerabilities to Corruption Assessment , a framework that helps local authorities identify ways to combat corruption. Despite impressive economic growth in recent years, Peru faces challenges in consolidating its democratic gains, particularly in areas that would boost public trust in political parties, municipal governments, and the congress.
Since , we have worked to strengthen the capacities of all Peruvian political parties to represent their constituents and encouraged members of congress to adopt sound governance practices and build institutional oversight capacity. To strengthen political discourse , we work with political stakeholders, think tanks and issue-experts to develop substantive policy proposals that address issues of concern to Peruvians , and we enhance the ability of political parties and elected officials to effectively communicate those policy ideas in ways that voters can easily understand.
Through town-hall meetings across the country, the caucus is engaging constituents in order to listen to their concerns and develop policy solutions. Following elections in , which the ruling party narrowly won, the economic decline has accelerated, the violent crime rate remains one of the highest in the world and citizens have taken to the streets to demand change.
Since , we have brought local organizations together with elected officials to discuss public policies and strategies focused on community interests and quality of life while encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process.
We help national leaders to respond to citizen needs by encouraging issue-based policy discussions. We encourage a wide range of civil society sectors to identify and articulate local issues of concern and to promote inclusive public dialogue. We also highlight the importance of building relationships and communication mechanisms among civil society, elected officials, local media and citizens. Guyana achieved independence in and is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations and the Caribbean Community.
Our work there has focused on parliamentary skill-building, civic engagement and voter education. From to , we supported the National Assembly in its functioning as a deliberative, representative institution.
This report originated as a Capstone Project Proposal at the Humphrey School of Public Affairs submitted by the staff of the International Republican Institute IRI , one of four nonpartisan democracy institutes that receive funding from the National Endowment for Democracy to support aspiring democracies worldwide International Republican Institute, In accepting this research proposal, our team of five graduate students were commissioned by IRI to explore the web of interdependent factors that contribute to VE within three particular contexts of Kenya, Kosovo, and Tunisia.
Additionally, the research proposal called for the recommendations of potential resources, programs, and tools that IRI could leverage for future programming designed to decrease societal and individual susceptibility to VE. Our approach to investigating violent extremism is encapsulated by Douglas Leonard, who states: Intolerance takes root and spreads in failed states where security is lacking, where balances of power are realigning and where fierce competition puts pressure on societies to create inflexible and impermeable alliances defined around the markers of human identity, whether ethnic, religious, linguistic or tribal Intolerance is a human tendency in any context of scarcity, whether religious or secular.
Leonard, As a means of systematically assessing susceptibility to VE across all three contexts Kenya, Kosovo, and Tunisia we developed an Assessment Tool that allows the user to identify vulnerable populations within a society. Although we are confident with the assessments made, we recognize that there are limitations to desk research. Description Capstone paper for the fulfillment of the Master of Public Policy degree. Search the library website Go.