Latin honors are Latin phrases used in some colleges and universities to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is primarily used in the United States and Canada. It is also used in some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines , although sometimes translations of these phrases are used instead of the Latin originals. The honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries, or with honorary degrees. Generally, a college or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction.
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Latin honors are Latin phrases used in some colleges and universities to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned.
This system is primarily used in the United States and Canada. It is also used in some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines , although sometimes translations of these phrases are used instead of the Latin originals. The honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries, or with honorary degrees. Generally, a college or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction.
For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, [ clarification needed ] or to graduate early. Each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary widely it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement [ citation needed ].
Similarly, some institutions may grant equivalent or additional non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin—Madison , for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing.
The honor is typically indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are often conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J. In North America, Latin honors are frequently used by colleges and universities to indicate a level of distinction with which a degree is granted, and are usually awarded for undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science and for the Juris Doctor law degree.
They are generally not used for any other degrees, including master's degrees or the Ph. Some institutions have additional distinctions, but these are uncommon. For example, at a few universities maxima cum laude , meaning "with very great praise", is an intermediary honor between the magna and the summa honors. It is sometimes used when the summa honor is reserved only for students with perfect academic records.
In , Harvard College became the first college in the United States to award final honors to its graduates. From to , cum laude and summa cum laude were the two Latin honors awarded to graduates. Beginning in , magna cum laude was also awarded:. The Faculty then prepared regulations for recommending candidates for the Bachelor's degree, either for an ordinary degree or for a degree with distinction; the grades of distinction being summa cum laude , magna cum laude , and cum laude.
The degree summa cum laude is for those who have attained ninety percent on the general scale, or have received Highest Honors in any department, and carries with it the assignment of an oration on the list of Commencement parts; the degree magna cum laude is for those who have attained eighty percent on the general scale, or have received Honors in any department, and carries with it the assignment of a dissertation; and the degree cum laude is to be given to those who attain seventy-five percent on the general scale, and to those who receive Honorable Mention in any study together with sixty-five percent on the general scale, or seventy percent on the last three years, or seventy-five percent on the last two.
Instead of attempting to fix the rank of every individual student by minute divisions on a scale of a hundred as formerly, five grades of scholarship were established and degrees were conferred upon the graduating classes according to their grades. If a student was found to be in the first or lowest grade, he was not considered as a candidate for a degree, though he might receive a certificate stating the facts in regard to his standing; if he appeared in the second grade the degree of A.
The new system of administration, of which the above is a part, is so original and peculiar that it is known as the Amherst System. In the UK the Latin cum laude is used in commemorative Latin versions of degree certificates sold by a few universities e. Primi Ordinis for First Class rather than summa cum laude , etc. Official degree certificates use English.
For undergraduate degrees, Latin honors are used in only a few countries such as the United States , Israel , Indonesia , the Dominican Republic , the Philippines and Canada. Malta shows the Latin honors on the degree certificates, but the UK model is shown on the transcript. In Austria , the only Latin honor in use is sub auspiciis Praesidentis rei publicae under the auspices of the president of the republic for doctoral degrees.
Candidates must have consistently excellent grades throughout high school and university, making it very difficult to attain: only about 20 out of a total of 2, doctoral graduates per year i.
In Belgium , the university degree awarded is limited to:. As of , only 22 graduates have received the summa cum laude honor at ITA. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro awards the cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 8. In Estonia , up until both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Summa cum laude was awarded only for very exceptional work.
Since 1 September , only cum laude is used. It is awarded to bachelors, masters and integrated studies graduates. Occasionally the word kiitusega , which means "with praise", is substituted for the usual cum laude.
To receive cum laude one must achieve 4. The Finnish Matriculation Examinations at the end of lukio uses the grades of: improbatur I, failing; "not accepted" , approbatur A; "accepted" lubenter approbatur B; "willingly accepted" , cum laude approbatur C; "accepted with praise" , magna cum laude approbatur M; "accepted with great praise" , eximia cum laude approbatur E; "accepted with excellent praise" and laudatur L; "praised".
They are roughly equivalent to Finnish school grades ranging from 4 to Some Finnish universities, when grading master's theses and doctoral dissertations, use the same scale with the additional grade of non sine laude approbatur N; "accepted not without praise" between lubenter and cum laude ; technical universities use a numerical scale instead. Since , honorifics ceased to be used for the completion of a PhD.
In Germany , the range of degrees is: rite "duly" conferred, that is, the requirements are fulfilled , cum laude with honors , magna cum laude with great honors , and summa cum laude with highest honors.
These degrees are used in university diplomas and in certain fields of sciences medical, legal and a very few others only. The grades of degrees are dependent on the received average points from final exams and from average points from the university studies.
In Italy " e lode " at institutions using a point system is the highest rank that can be achieved during the academic studies, although many years ago there were some other notations that were given only to those who had attained the "lode". Professional degrees lasting longer than the standard 3 years such as the 5 year Bachelor of Pharmacy are awarded Egregia Cum Laude. Also different awards on public and private universities are given to the student with the highest final grade average i.
In the Netherlands , both for bachelor's and master's programs, only one class of honors is used: cum laude with honor. Typically it is reserved to mark exceptional achievement. It depends on an absolute minimum grade point average.
Sometimes it is lost, despite a high average mark, when the student gets a mark of 6 or lower for one of the many exams on a scale of 1—10, where 10 is the highest. It is also possible to receive a PhD degree cum laude , although this honor is even rarer than for master's graduates. In view of the difficulty and subjectivity of determining this, some universities and fields of study very seldom award doctorates cum laude.
At Dutch University Colleges, cum laude , magna cum laude and, exceptionally, summa cum laude may be used. Students who achieve a final grade average of are awarded the title "May Karangalan" "cum laude" in Latin or "with honors" and will receive a bronze medal with the DepEd seal. Those who have a final grade average of receive the title of "May Mataas na Karangalan" "magna cum laude" or "with high honors" and a silver medal with the same seal.
Students with a final grade average of shall be awarded the title of "May Pinakamataas na Karangalan" "summa cum laude" or "with highest honors" and a gold medal with the same specification.
In Russia , the honor system is based on the grade point averages. At least 4. In military schools, a "red diploma" may be accompanied by a gold medal "summa cum laude" for outstanding performance. Russian high schools also award a gold medal to the student who achieves a perfect score in all final examinations and in all other subjects not requiring a final exam.
In Singapore , the Latin honors, cum laude , magna cum laude and summa cum laude are used by Singapore Management University. In Spain , the Latin honors cum laude is used for PhD degrees only, and is awarded after a secret vote of the jury members, using envelopes that must be opened in a separate session, and requiring unanimity. In Switzerland , the degrees rite , cum laude , magna cum laude , insigni cum laude and summa cum laude are used, but the exact GPA corresponding to each varies by institution.
In Ukraine , the university education honor system is based on by-law From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Summa Cum Laude Festival. Not to be confused with honours degree or honorary degree. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: academic grading in Finland. University of Wisconsin—Madison , Office of the Registrar.
University of Wisconsin System. January 7, Retrieved January 12, New York University. Effective with the September graduating class, Summa cum laude : the GPA included within the top 5 percent of the previous year's graduating class. Magna cum laude : the GPA included within the next 10 percent of the previous year's class.
Cum laude : the GPA included within the next 15 percent of the previous year's class. BU, Office of the University Registrar. Boston University. University of Portland. Honors are based on the following formula: within a given college or school, summa cum laude will be awarded to all students receiving a 4. La Salle University Course Catalog. La Salle University. The candidate who has earned an index between 3. The candidate who has earned an index of 3. New York: Frederick H. The University of Edinburgh Registry.
University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on June 15, Department of Education. Archived PDF from the original on April 2, Retrieved January 1,
Anyways, the other day, we go to college together we were in class, and I was squirming a lot and he asked me what was wrong so I told him. Honors are based on the following formula: within a given college or school, summa cum laude will be awarded to all students receiving a 4. I love her laugh, her smile and her tits especially with cum running down them. In this case, GPA is a factor in determining whether a student receives this honor at graduation, but that student does not necessarily need to obtain a particular GPA in order to make that achievement. In Estonia , up until both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Please turn it on in your browser and reload the page.
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S antosh: It is my Fundamental Right to sing in a free period. If your singing disturbs me, then I have the right to object. The discussion, in broken English, between the year-olds, about the Constitution, continued in a small room of a Government Primary School in Gejha, Noida.
Beside the lively conversation about Indian democracy, the class five students from underprivileged backgrounds have also been a part of eleven other co-curricular activities like math and science quizzes, environment-related workshops, public speaking, atlas games, and essay writing among others, that were carried out in the academic year Though conducted in the school, the program was organised by Books For All BFA , an NGO that aspires to empower underprivileged children through fun learning activities and even libraries.
Classrooms sans benches, whiteboards and other basic facilities pushed us to speak to the teaching faculty of the school. We helped them get floor mats for students to sit on during the winter months. Pravin, an engineer by profession, was then a work-from-home consultant, and that allowed him to dedicate quality time to his initiative.
He and his wife founded BFA. Reading opens a plethora of doors to new things, information, hobbies and interests. Pravin requested the school to provide him with a room where he could set up the library. While he awaited permission, he reached out to his neighbours, relatives and friends to donate books.
In the beginning, the response was slow, but once it picked up, BFA received close to books! A full-time librarian was also appointed on a payroll basis. The volunteers pitched in for her salary. He officially launched the library on January 30, Their basic understanding of English was worse than class one kid studying in a private school.
I was concerned as to how these kids would compete with the outside world without basic knowledge, says Pravin.
Hence, they have no other means to study besides classrooms. Lack of resources and opportunities often deprive the brilliant minds of the stimulus they need. The year-old is one of the core team members. Seeing the positive response for his initiative, Pravin retired in He and his team have now opened seven such library-cum-classrooms in Delhi NCR.
Corporates and well-wishers have donated funds. To ensure the all-round development of the students, they are engaged in extracurricular activities like singing, dancing, public speaking, sports, waste management, and so on. It is through such activities that the volunteers identify the true potential of the children.
Every student is talented, and as soon as we identify it, we help them hone their skills. We also encourage them to take it up as a hobby. You might never know what skill may affirmatively impact the kid, says Deepa. BFA also sponsors the education of a few select children based on the donors. For instance, eleven children from the government schools have been shifted to English-medium CBSE schools and all the expenses are being borne by donors.
Around eight of them have been shifted to private Hindi medium schools. The sponsored kids require a tremendous amount of hand-holding as the new environment, teachers and curriculum can be overwhelming.
The volunteers dedicate extra hours to these kids after school and help them cope up with the syllabus, says Pravin. BFA maintains complete transparency as it sends progress reports to the sponsors every six months.
During the PTA meetings, BFA volunteers accompany the parents to get a progress report directly from the teaching faculty. To ensure that the children set a professional goal post-schooling, BFA also provides counselling sessions to them. People from different professional backgrounds like engineering, army, travel and tourism, health, and fashion are invited to give talks to the children. In one of the sessions presided over by members of Indian Army Wives Association, around seven children were inspired, who now are undergoing a vocational training course with the association.
In my nine-year-old journey, I have seen a drastic change in these children in terms of behaviour, communication and knowledge.
Now the kids want to form their own identity, and for that, they are ready to work harder and stay committed. Till now I had only heard that education plays an integral role, now I am actually witnessing it right in front of my eyes, says Pravin. In 9th I got a sponsor and was shifted to a Hindi-medium private school. In terms of teaching, there is a huge difference between the two schools.
BFA is the reason why I started reading books, and every novel has a lesson, says the year-old. Nisha wishes to become a teacher so that like her other children are not deprived of a good teacher. She also wants to become a Collector to provide good governance to people. After studying in a Hindi-medium school till class five, learning in English in my new school was difficult.
I have around 50 books that I borrowed from BFA. Reading books has improved my vocabulary. Rajkumar aspires to join IIT-Kharagpur and become a software engineer. He wants to fight against the hacking system. Rajkumar is the first person in our entire family to get education post class eight. His determination to become an engineer makes me very proud, Mahadev tells TBI. Nisha and Rajkumar are two of the hundreds of kids whose lives have changed for good after their entry in BFA. Pravin and his team wish to expand the initiative depending on the funds and books.
If you wish to help Books For All, you can write to them: pravin. Pravin Bhasin centre founder of Books for All. Listen to our new podcast. Get the best positive stories straight into your inbox!
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