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Anglo-American settlers who migrated to the area from the east and south remained to southwesfern the land. Inthe Indiana Historical Societywith Angel r riley southwestern Eli Lillypurchased acres hectares of property to preserve it and to use it for long-term archaeological excavation. Show Details Chad Morris. The upper terrace is 28 feet 8. A reconstruction of part of the stockade, based on archeological evidence, was made in Associated PO box P. Elswick April 24—25, Gugin and James E. All mentioned corporate names and trademarks are Agnel property Angel r riley southwestern their respective owners. Black, ".
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The large residential and agricultural community was constructed and inhabited from AD to AD and served as the political, cultural, and economic center of the Angel chiefdom.
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The large residential and agricultural community was constructed and inhabited from AD to AD and served as the political, cultural, and economic center of the Angel chiefdom. The town had as many as 1, inhabitants at its peak and included a complex of thirteen earthen mounds, hundreds of home sites, a palisade stockade , and other structures. Designated a National Historic Landmark in , the property also includes an interpretive center, recreations of Mississippian structures, a replica of a Works Projects Administration archaeology laboratory, and a acre hectare area away from the archaeological site that is a nature preserve.
The site is named after the Angel family who in began purchasing farmland on which the archaeological site is located. In , the Indiana Historical Society , with funding Eli Lilly , purchased acres hectares of property to preserve it and to use it for long-term archaeological excavation.
In , the Indiana Historical Society transferred ownership of the site to the State of Indiana , which manages the site through the Indiana State Museum. Archaeological research on Angel Mounds continues to be conducted through the Glenn A. For thousands of years, the area that became the eastern United States was home to a succession of native groups who settled near the rivers and used them for travel and trade. The widespread Mississippian culture , which is named in reference to its geographical origins along the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries, began around AD The people of the Middle Mississippian culture built and lived in a community in what became southwestern Indiana around AD and remained there until AD ,a period that Marjory Honerkamp defined in the s as the Angel phase.
The Angel phase and the Mississippian town are named after the Angel family, who in began purchasing farmland that included the archaeological site. The large residential and agricultural community was also the political, cultural, and economic center of the chiefdom, whose residents traded with other chiefdoms and peoples along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
The Angel community primarily inhabited an area bounded by the Ohio River to the south, the White River and its East Fork to the north, the Wabash River to the west, and the Anderson River to the east.
Laborers built the main Angel site sometime after AD They also established the surrounding villages and farming areas along the Ohio River and engaged in hunting and farming on the rich bottom lands. In addition, the Mississippian culture is known for its earthen mounds , with shapes including platform , conical, and ridgetop as also seen at Cahokia.
Working with a variety of soils to create a stable mass, the Mississippian people built major earthworks at the Angel site. The community eventually covered about acres 40 hectares and included thirteen mounds near the Ohio River. Some of these mounds were built for ceremonial and cosmological purposes.
In addition to the mounds, the Mississippians constructed structures and a defensive palisade stockade]] made of wattle and daub with foot 3. This settlement was the largest-known town of its time in what became present-day Indiana. Scholars also believe the town may have had as many as 1, inhabitants at its peak, which Indiana archeologist Glenn Albert Black estimated to be about households.
Carbon dating of the community indicats its existence as early as AD and as late as AD Scholars have speculated that it was potentially due to environmental factors, such as an extended regional drought that reduced the maize corn surpluses, increasingly scarce natural resources that had enabled the concentration of population.
In addition, the people may have overhunting and reducing forests through the consumption of wood for constructing buildings and making fires. Archaeologists also theorize that with the collapse of the Angel chiefdom by AD , many of the site's inhabitants relocated downriver to the confluence of the Ohio and Wabash rivers. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, groups of other native peoples, such as the Shawnee , the Miami , and other historical tribes moved into the Ohio River valley from the east over the next years.
European explorers and traders subsequently arrived in the area. Anglo-American settlers who migrated to the area from the east and south remained to farm the land. The Native Americans and other settlers were attracted by the rich soil and temperate growing season. Mathias Angel — was among these settlers.
In he began purchasing farmland that also included the archaeological site. In May , Warren K. Black and E. Guernsey, Society employees and archaeologists, visited the Angel site as part of a tour to assess Indiana's archaeological sites.
Some individuals also came to the site simply to collect relics. In , the Indiana Historical Society purchased acres hectares of property from the Angel family descendants and others to protect the archaeological site from destruction.
The mounds were in danger of being destroyed due to construction of a planned levee and real estate development. Initial efforts in —39 focused on surveying and clearing the main archaeological site and an outlying camp. These efforts resulted in the recording and processing of 2. Black remained on the property as its caretaker. Angel Mounds was declared a National Historic Landmark in ,   the same year that the Indiana Historical Society transferred its archeological excavation rights to Indiana University.
Research on Angel Mounds is conducted though the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology , founded in at Indiana University Bloomington and named in honor of Glenn Albert Black, the archaeologist who conducted excavations at Angel Mounds from to and brought the site to national attention. Since , Indiana University has continued to conduct an archaeology field school at the site during the summer months. A acre hectare area of the property that does not include the archaeological site has a nature preserve and recreational trails.
The main site is close to agricultural fields and is shielded from the river by what is known in the present-day as Three Mile Island.
The channel and slough , which existed during the time that the archaeological site was inhabited, created a quiet backwater that surrounded the town on the north, east, and west sides.
The slough and channel to the Ohio River provided easy transit for canoes, as well as a source for freshwater fishing, potable water, and bathing. Until nearly the end of the nineteenth century, the Ohio River was clear and potable. In the mid-twentieth century, the channel was known as an excellent fishing area.
When the site was first settled, the slough was deeper and the Mississippian people kept it cleared of brush and trees; however, by , when official excavation of the Angel site began, the stream had dried-up and the channel had eroded, providing a land surface that was often stable enough to walk across.
The Mississippians found the site along the Ohio River ideal for agricultural purposes. Annual spring floods regularly replenished the nutrients in the soil and allowed cultivation of crops that included maize corn , beans , and squash. The fertile soil enabled production of surplus crops, which the Mississippian people used for trade and to support a large enough population to develop artisan and craft specialties such as pottery. The site includes six large platform mounds Mounds A through F , five smaller mounds Mounds H through L , and at least one large plaza.
Mound G, which is older than the others, may not have been part of the Angel phase group. A defensive palisade with bastions nearly surrounded the approximately acre hectare town. Mounds A Central Mound , E, and F Temple Mound , the largest mounds at the site, are truncate pyramidal earthen structures with either a square or rectangular base. It also among the largest prehistoric structures in the eastern United States. The upper terrace is 28 feet 8. Based on reports from early European explorers in the southeastern United States who encountered active Mississippian culture villages, this mound was likely the residence of the hereditary chief of the town and the surrounding communities.
It is generally believed that upper-class members of society would live on the highest mounds, while lower-class members inhabited smaller living spaces. Archeological evidence suggests there may have been a log stairway in prehistoric times.
It was likely used as a temple and burial site. The mound was also the site of what is believed to have been a council house that once stood in the southwest corner of the upper level of the mound. The council house was a rectangular structure with least two rooms and anterooms, or porticos, appended to it. Mound F was destroyed as a result of its excavation. Archaeological excavation revealed a set of two palisade stockade walls.
The outer palisade surrounded the perimeter of the town with the Ohio River acting as a barrier on the south side. An inner palisade bisected the interior of the site. An entrance to the town was believed to have been on southwest corner of the palisade, based on archaeological findings at that location. Parallel to the stockade walls, another barrier similar to a picket fence was set 14 feet 4.
It was designed to slow attackers as they came into range. A reconstruction of part of the stockade, based on archeological evidence, was made in The reconstructed walls are 12 feet 3. The walls and posts are covered with wattle and daub a loose weaving of sticks covered with a mud-and-grass plaster.
Defensive bastions along the stockade walls were also reconstructed. The distance between each bastion allowed defenders using arrows or lances to protect the walls from direct attack. When residences were no longer "serviceable," the Mississippians burned the structures and constructed a new one over the ashes. Indiana archaeologist Glenn A.
Black posited that walls were covered in cane and plastered with mud and straw. Roof composition is uncertain, but Black thought they were grass thatch. Two construction methods were used, one for summer and another for winter. Or, they may have been used for meetings. About 2. The fluorite artifact is 8.
Metalwork objects were very rare. Spears with projectile points were used to hunt small game. Antler, animal and bird bone, shells, and animal teeth were also found. Of the nearly 2 million sherds of pottery found at the site, 4, of them were of the negative-painted type.
Pottery tools and masses of prepared, slightly-fired clay pieces were also found during the season's excavation. It appeared to be a type of production-line process, with the works awaiting finishing and firing as bowls, jars or figures. In the lower Ohio River valley in Illinois , Kentucky, and Indiana, the Mississippian-culture towns of Kincaid , Wickliffe , Tolu , and Angel Mounds have been grouped together into a "Kincaid Focus" set, due to similarities in pottery assemblages and site plans.
These connections have led some scholars to hypothesize that the builders and residents were of the same society. The to year span in which these types of artifacts and sites are found is called the " Angel Phase ". It is divided into three subphases:. Rare painted and incised sherds of Mississippian culture pottery have been found at all four sites, ranging from less than one percent near Kincaid to about three or four percent of the assemblage at Wickliffe.
Other burials were found on the sides of Mound F, at Mound I, or near the palisade walls.
She received her undergraduate degree at the University of Oklahoma and her law degree from Harvard Law School. Kern of the Northern District of Oklahoma. She was raised on a farm at Saddle Mountain in southwestern Oklahoma where she learned to butcher chickens, chop cotton, castrate hogs, and live free. My family because they have always supported me. Career Highlights. Other subjects include philosophy and psychology, world religions, archaeology, general history, and Christian art and literature.
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Occupation Service Occupations. Personal Information. Address History. Family Data. Quick Facts Current occupation is listed as Service Occupations. Angel's age is Angel uses the phone numbers Southwestern Bell , A post office box that presumably was used by Angel: P. Box , Round Rock, TX Eight email addresses were found in public records and on the web — ang30in04 yahoo.
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