Affected aids by in india nurse-HIV/AIDS | UNICEF

HIV kills or damages the body's immune system cells. There are two types of HIV. Type I and Type II. AIDS is generally caused by unprotected sex with an infected partner. It may also spread through the use of infected syringes of HIV infected people and blood transfusions.

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

They die due to the effects that the HIV has on the body. If she agreed to participate, informed consent was provided, along with a date to return for a focus group. These women revealed that no one helped them with any type of support. All of these factors relate to health outcomes. Nevertheless, the findings highlight the perceptions and needs airs this very challenged population. Who is at risk while at work? There are no risks involved. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Infected blood can be introduced into drug solutions by:. These tests include: Window period : There is Affected aids by in india nurse period of time between HIV infection and the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies that can be measured which is called Infidelity with strippers period".

Silt bottom lakes. IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS AMONG WOMEN

Finally, in Junehe got a lung infection and was no longer able to walk to school or sit in class for the whole day. The State and community shall undertake special measures to ensure that the linguistic needs of children iin taken care of and encourage the production and dissemination of child-friendly information and material in various forms. Bency then stayed at home for around one year. These orphans are also at high risk for becoming infected Affected aids by in india nurse HIV themselves, child labortraffickingand prostitution. Sunita now attends fourth grade, she told us. He was underweight, listless, and withdrawn. Ny practical ways to ensure that the right of PWHA to treatment of opportunistic infections is promoted, respected and protected in practice. Turkey, Russia agree to set up Syria 'safe zone', joint patrols. A long-awaited legislation that seeks to end stigma and discrimination against HIV positive persons in workplace, hospitals and society, while also ensuring their privacy was introduced Bj berne the Rajya Sabha on Affected aids by in india nurse of saying 'like this' Afdected 'like this,' we say 'you don't get it like this and like this. My relationship with my relatives is gone. International law requires that institutional care for children be used as a measure of last resort and that children be kept in family-type care as ih as possible. I bathe in hot water if my sister heats the water for me. Ravi was iin fourth grade when his Megan diaz naked, who was HIV-positive, became bedridden:.

The programme enrolled its first MSc students in

  • This map does not show the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Uttaranchal, which were created in
  • Over 99 per cent of the population in the country is free from infection.

Over 99 per cent of the population in the country is free from infection. Yet in terms of individuals infected, India is home to the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world. UNICEF is assisting the government to further expand and enhance the quality of programmes to reduce the transmission of HIV from infected mothers to their children and to increase the access of these mothers and their children to treatment in various ways: by providing strategic supplies of drugs and commodities, improving the capacity of staff; by developing innovative communication approaches for prevention and care; helping to improve monitoring and reporting systems.

UNICEF supports efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination against children and people affected by HIV and for commitment on ensuring their equal access to essential health, social welfare and educational services.

Signup for Newsletter. Toggle navigation. Latest Stories. Hospital in Bangalore, capital of the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Nearly five per cent of infections are attributable to parent-to-child-transmission. It is estimated that out of 27 million pregnancies every year, nearly 49, occur in HIV-positive mothers. The number of facilities offering HIV testing and counseling went up from 4, in to 4, in and stands at 4, as of March In , only of an estimated 49, pregnant women living with HIV received anti-retroviral treatment to prevent parent-to-child transmission.

This is because of multiple factors including social customs, lack of family support and financial barriers, which constrain women from availing of institutional care necessary for administering treatment. One of the best practices in PPTCT in India is the outreach approach, used by the ICTC to ensure that HIV-positive women who are tested are followed up before, during and after an institutional delivery, and provided with anti-retroviral prophylaxis. The core principle of this approach rests on the continuum of care for women, children and their families — a chain of interventions that begin before pregnancy and continue through pregnancy, labour and delivery and subsequently as part of routine or specialized chronic care services for after the child is born.

Pediatric care and treatment: It is estimated that 70, children below the age of 15 are living with HIV in India and 21, children are infected every year through parent-to-child transmission. A small proportion are also infected by unsafe injections and infected by blood transfusions. Preventing infection among young adolescents and young people: In India, the prevalence of HIV among year-olds is 0.

In the long term, NACP III aims to ensure that every child has access to the same comprehensive set of basic health, education and social protection services, regardless of their HIV status or that of any member of their family. Get Involved. Meet the team.

Winning the War against Malnutrition. Purulia girls unite against child marriage. Vigilante women make their village open defecation free. Girls demand education, not marriage. Determined girls transform a village in Shrawasti. Tribal women become torchbearers of education in Lalitpur district. It takes a village to raise a healthy child - Bhandariya shows the way.

Call for innovative solutions to reach out-of-school children - closes 21 September 5 p. Double blessings for West Bengal Super Dad. A West Bengal father and his special daily delivery. Campaigns Videos Photo Albums. Stay Safe Online The Internet and social media provide SwachhHeroes Laxmanlal Rajasthan With no access to transportation, ret Find us on Facebook.

I bathe in hot water if my sister heats the water for me. It definitely means lesser access to tools necessary for safer sex, including information and condoms. The director of Tamil Nadu's Department of Social Defense told us that his department was considering beginning education programs for street children-"our NGOs are implementing rehabilitation programs for street children by providing vocational education and training but are not focusing on health concerns and HIV. India's Education System Millions of India's million children are out of school. The mean depression score for AIDS orphans was

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse

Affected aids by in india nurse. Abandoning HIV children

Nearly five per cent of infections are attributable to parent-to-child-transmission. It is estimated that out of 27 million pregnancies every year, nearly 49, occur in HIV-positive mothers.

The number of facilities offering HIV testing and counseling went up from 4, in to 4, in and stands at 4, as of March In , only of an estimated 49, pregnant women living with HIV received anti-retroviral treatment to prevent parent-to-child transmission. This is because of multiple factors including social customs, lack of family support and financial barriers, which constrain women from availing of institutional care necessary for administering treatment.

One of the best practices in PPTCT in India is the outreach approach, used by the ICTC to ensure that HIV-positive women who are tested are followed up before, during and after an institutional delivery, and provided with anti-retroviral prophylaxis. The core principle of this approach rests on the continuum of care for women, children and their families — a chain of interventions that begin before pregnancy and continue through pregnancy, labour and delivery and subsequently as part of routine or specialized chronic care services for after the child is born.

Pediatric care and treatment: It is estimated that 70, children below the age of 15 are living with HIV in India and 21, children are infected every year through parent-to-child transmission. A small proportion are also infected by unsafe injections and infected by blood transfusions. Preventing infection among young adolescents and young people: In India, the prevalence of HIV among year-olds is 0.

In the long term, NACP III aims to ensure that every child has access to the same comprehensive set of basic health, education and social protection services, regardless of their HIV status or that of any member of their family. Get Involved.

Meet the team. Winning the War against Malnutrition. Purulia girls unite against child marriage. Vigilante women make their village open defecation free. Girls demand education, not marriage. All the 91 centres have specially appointed and trained doctors, counsellors and laboratory technicians to help initiate patients on ART and follow them up regularly.

Although these drugs do not cure HIV infection, they suppress multiplication of the virus and reduce the number of opportunistic infections thereby improving the quality of life and prolonging the life span. Apart from providing free treatment, all the ART centres are providing counselling to the infected persons so that they maintain regularity of their medication. New HIV cases among adults have declined by half in India since , according to a new UN report which praised India's contribution to AIDS response through manufacture of generic antiretroviral drugs.

Though rate of HIV transmission in Asia is slowing down, at least 1, new infections among adults continue to be reported in the continent every day in The UNAIDS lauded India for doing "particularly well" in halving the number of adults newly infected between and and said some smaller countries in Asia like Afghanistan and Philippines are experiencing increases in the number of people acquiring HIV infection.

It said a total 1. In India, the figure for such deaths stood at , in The country is also committed to new forms of partnership with low-income countries through innovative support mechanisms and South?

It also points out that India already provides substantial support to neighbouring countries and other Asian countries — in , it allocated USD million to 68 projects in Bhutan across key socio-economic sectors, including health, education and capacity-building. In at Addis Ababa, the Government of India further committed to accelerating technology transfer between its pharmaceutical sector and African manufacturers.

A long-awaited legislation that seeks to end stigma and discrimination against HIV positive persons in workplace, hospitals and society, while also ensuring their privacy was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Cost of HIV treatment. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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In addition, three nurses, two physicians, and five reproductive health accredited social health activists ASHAs took part in focus groups. The WLA offered insight into the benefits of HIV-trained ASHAs including emotional support, assistance with travel to health care providers and antiretroviral therapy medication adherence. Approximately 2. In India there exist gender-specific disparities in HIV prevention and treatment.

WLA have been found to have low levels of psychosocial well-being Solomon et al. Our goal is to determine the utility and acceptance of a new HIV-trained ASHA who can promote the health and well-being of rural WLA in partnership with rural health care professionals. It is hoped that these findings will promote the development of culturally sensitive strategies targeted for WLA in rural India. It is estimated that each year, about 56, infants are infected with HIV in India as a result of vertical transmission, despite the availability of a government-sponsored prevention program NACO, In India's male-dominated culture, women are finding they must choose between the stigma of becoming infected with HIV from their husbands or the less desirable option of remaining childless Solomon et al.

Mental illness is common in Indian women, with the prevalence of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder as high as Focus groups have revealed that stigmatization Tarakeshwar et al. A qualitative study of HIV-positive individuals in Chennai found the major theme of stigma, or living a life of fear, was related to isolation and discrimination experienced by WLA Tarakeshwar et al.

Women in this study expressed a fatalistic view of HIV infection, feeling powerless to protect themselves. The impact of stigma was related to guilt and shame, issues surrounding disclosure, and worries about the future.

Findings from these studies can guide the design of interventions focused on increasing access to care for WLA and bolstering their social support and emotional health, particularly as they relate to stigma Gupta et al.

These beliefs extend to those working in the health care sector, further alienating WLA from receiving needed care. Women who live in rural villages in India face unique challenges to receiving HIV care. Two-thirds of households in the state of Andhra Pradesh reside in rural areas NFHS, , which generally have village populations of to persons each. Rural villagers have difficulties traveling to government hospitals to obtain free ART, related to travel expenses equal to a week's salary for one round-trip , length of travel up to 6 hours each way , and stigma and discrimination from hospital employees van Rompay et al.

For these reasons, community-based interventions are needed to reach rural WLA, targeting the issues of health care access, ART adherence, emotional support, and stigma. Community-based organizations that address women's health care needs should be used to develop HIV peer education programs van Rompay et al. Currently, female village health workers known as reproductive health accredited social health activists ASHAs are being trained in India to promote the health and well-being of pregnant women, as well as provide care and support for the newborn.

These government-trained ASHAs assist village women with pregnancy testing, registering antenatal cases, providing vaccinations, and improving infant and maternal morbidity and mortality by registering and referring pregnant women for antenatal and postnatal care and to hospitals for birth. However, training material for these paraprofessionals outlines very limited roles and responsibilities toward women who are HIV infected Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, These reproductive health ASHAs focus predominantly on the health of pregnant women and the infant and mother during the first 6 months post delivery.

They are paraprofessionals by training and generally educated at the fifth- to eighth-grade level. Specifically, some of the objectives of the ASHA are to create health awareness, promote good health practices, and increase utilization of existing health services NRHM. In addition, the future for an expanded role of ASHAs is already under way, with the launch of a nationwide ASHA training program with full implementation targeted for Chiranjeevi, One revealed that peer educators can effectively disseminate information to less-educated communities van Rompay et al.

In the second study, Sivaram and Celentano revealed that training peer educators can be effective for AIDS prevention in rural India. Although few studies exist examining the use of peer education and support related to HIV in India, these ASHAs are comparable to other lay health providers who have been studied in the literature.

They have been identified as trusted leaders in their social networks Israel, These studies confirm a promising impact of peer educators on improved health indicators in multiple areas around the world. This indicates an expansion of the role previously studied in the above-cited literature.

Because reproductive health ASHAs are already trained with respect to reproductive and maternal-child health, the integration of HIV care and support could be a natural extension of their current roles. However, no information currently exists about the perspectives of WLA regarding this new type of lay health provider. Using a community-based participatory research CBPR approach, a qualitative study was designed utilizing focus groups to understand the perspectives of rural WLA receiving ART regarding the integration of a new lay health provider in the community.

Select health care providers, both professionals nurses and physicians and paraprofessionals existing reproductive health ASHAs , were also included in focus groups to offer additional insight. This strategy incorporated the guidance of a community advisory board as well as in-depth insight into the life experiences of affected individuals and care-givers Sandelowski, Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 39 WLA. These health care providers of whom all were female except the two physicians , were selected as key informants based on their experience working with WLA in rural village areas with high HIV prevalence in one selected mandal subdistrict of the district Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.

Focus groups were guided by a Semi-Structured Interview Guide, a listing of predetermined open-ended questions that incorporated the theoretical constructs of the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm Nyamathi, The focus for this study includes sociodemographic factors women experiencing challenges of being impoverished , situational factors living in the rural villages far from district hospitals , personal and social factors needing inner strength and social support , and coping responses strategies WLA use to seek information and request health care.

All of these factors relate to health outcomes. Prior to the initiation of this study, a community advisory board was formed, composed of 10 persons including physicians, nurses, reproductive health ASHAs, and WLA.

The health care providers were key informants from the rural primary care clinic where the study was to take place. Despite the fact that the reproductive health ASHAs are not HIV-trained, they have experience caring for childbearing WLA and therefore can offer insight into the perceptions and feelings of this population. These board members were not part of the focus group discussions and met as a group prior to the start of focus group sessions and upon completion of all focus group sessions.

Each board meeting or focus group session lasted between 60 to 90 minutes. Board members also reviewed the outcomes of the focus group discussions and engaged in lively discussions about how to actualize support for the needs of WLA within the constraints of existing AIDS care guidelines. The board members assisted in the refinement of the interview guide used in the focus groups, helping to ensure that it was culturally sensitive and linguistically appropriate for WLA. A total of 39 WLA were recruited from a large primary health center in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, which was surrounded by approximately 30 villages where the WLA resided.

Women were eligible for the study if they were currently taking ART and had their drug cards as validation, were 18 or older, spoke English or Telugu the official language of Andhra Pradesh , and consented to participate in the study. The women ranged in age from 20 to 45, with a mean age of The health care workers reported a mean age of 34 and two thirds were married.

All nurses reported 6 to 11 years of education, while the physicians reported professional schooling. All were employed. If she agreed to participate, informed consent was provided, along with a date to return for a focus group.

Both staff were trained by the lead author. The questions were guided by the Semistructured Interview Guide, which was formulated based on an extensive review of the literature on issues of relevance to WLA and refined by the community advisory board.

The focus groups with nurses and physicians identified similar issues, as well as the necessary characteristics of future ASHAs, responsibilities of this new paraprofessional, the type of training needed, and other care-related issues.

All discussions were tape recorded and later transcribed by the research assistant. Themes raised by the participants were identified and coded by a trained research assistant and verified by the research leader. After coding was completed, a catalogue of each theme, particular type of respondent and number of responses were recorded.

Content analysis revealed the unique needs of WLA for care and support as well as their perceptions of the major benefits and a few challenges they might expect with the provision of an HIV-trained ASHA as a partner in their care.

Women shared significant challenges related to living with AIDS. They projected the types of assistance they would need from ASHAs in the areas of emotional support, travel for health-related visits, and ART adherence. The need for emotional and spiritual support was raised by one-fourth of WLA. In particular, one participant mentioned that while nurses do visit them occasionally, emotional support is not commonly provided.

As one woman revealed:. Because sometimes we are down and sick emotional[ly] We welcome ASHAs to talk to us. Support will be a great help. We welcome ASHAs [to] visit our homes Assistance with travel for health-related visits was verified by all the women who participated. For one-third of WLA, being accompanied by an ASHA to hospitals, primary health centers and other health care facilities was very important, particularly when the distance was very far or if the WLA was not feeling well.

Illness was also mentioned as a challenge five WLA faced, which required visiting the district hospital. As one women reported:. From the time I started using ART, I have problems like bloating of abdomen, itching, body pain, legs and arms pains.

For my minor fever, diarrhea, when I visited PHC primary health center , the doctor asked me to consult specialist at District Hospital In the rural setting in particular, all persons affected by AIDS must receive all ART and AIDS-related medical care at the district hospital, rather than a closer primary health center located within an hour or two from their village home.

Travel time to the district hospital took at least 7 hours. This was a major issue that negatively impacted adherence to ART medication. Support for adherence to the ART regimen was raised by the women.

All verbalized the importance of taking their medication, but when asked how many had never missed a dose, only two hands were raised. A major challenge the women experienced was not only transportation to distant hospitals but also better instructions on how to take the medications. The difficult journey was captured clearly by one WLA:. I go alone to collect my medicines. By the time I come home, it is very late in the evening.

I come back and cook my food, I face a lot of difficulties whenever I collect my medicines, but I do it because I know the importance of the medicines. I leave my daughter at my neighbor's home. Three-quarters of the women reiterated that the challenges they face with needing emotional support, assistance with travel, and instruction related to how to take their medicines and keep healthy were overwhelming to them. These women revealed that no one helped them with any type of support.

For one participant, the relationship of stigma to loss of health was poignant:. If I fear stigma, then I lose my health. If I lose my health, my children and husband, and family will suffer. Why should I fear receiving support and change my life towards a healthier side. I am saying this from my heart and on behalf of all WLA. We really do not have any problem with ASHAs

Affected aids by in india nurse