Female nipple formation-Development of the Human Breast

What age do breasts fully develop? How do breast start to develop? Are my breasts normal? Can I change the way my breasts develop? Further support.

Female nipple formation

Female nipple formation

Female nipple formation

Some infections are transmitted through the nipple, especially if irritation or injury to the nipple has occurred. Front Biosci. Female nipple formation Adolesc Health Care. How do I respect my daughter's need for privacy while also monitoring her development? Fibroadenomas or fibroadenomata are painless, benign lumps which form due to excessive lobe development. Arch Dis Child ;—

Fertility monitor vs ovulation predictor. Objectives

October Girls usually begin puberty between the ages of 8 and 13 years old. Research also Female nipple formation not shown a benefit from Femake self-exams in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The result of nipple stimulation by the newborn helps to move breast milk out through the ducts and to the nipple. Amateur vote a woman who goes topless is legally in the same boat as if she'd had sex Snae nurses public. The hormone estrogen is produced by the ovaries in the first half of the menstrual cycle. Such is the case in West Virginia and Massachusetts. Answer any questions she may have about the changes in her body. Pain in the breast is rarely Female nipple formation first noticeable…. Once a girl has had her first period, her growth has already started to formatiob down. Mastitis Nonpuerperal mastitis Subareolar abscess Granulomatous mastitis. It's important to emphasize that periods Female nipple formation a normal part Female nipple formation growing up. Once menstruation begins, the cycle begins again. Slow growth is nothing to worry… you can just wear regular cup bra and make sure to follow healthy estrogen rich food in your diet.

Here's an overview of the major physical changes girls can expect as they go through puberty:.

  • Do you know breast growth is a step by step developmental processes and not some sudden change?
  • There is very little actual breast tissue present at birth, although a few days after birth it is not at all unusual for babies to produce what is referred to as 'witches milk' from their nipples.

Mammalia are so named based on the presence of the mammary gland in the breast. The mammary gland is an epidermal appendage, derived from the apocrine glands. The human breast consists of the parenchyma and stroma, originating from ectodermal and mesodermal elements, respectively.

Development of the human breast is distinctive for several reasons. The human breast houses the mammary gland that produces and delivers milk through development of an extensive tree-like network of branched ducts. It is also characterized by cellular plasticity, with extensive remodeling in adulthood, a factor that increases its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

Congenital and acquired disorders of the breast often have a basis in development, making its study essential to understanding breast pathology.

The human breast consists of parenchymal and stromal elements. The parenchyma forms a system of branching ducts eventually leading to secretory acini development and the stroma consists mainly of adipose tissue, providing the environment for development of the parenchyma. The process of development of the ductal system and acini is termed branching morphogenesis and although it commences in the fetus, it halts in early childhood until puberty when hormonal stimulation triggers further differentiation.

Prenatal breast development can be classified into two main processes; formation of a primary mammary bud and development of a rudimentary mammary gland. As early as 4 to 6 weeks of gestation, mammary-specific progenitor cells may be seen.

These discrete areas of proliferation extend in a line between the fetal axilla and inguinal region and form two ridges called the mammary crests or milk lines Fig. Development of the mammary gland. A Ventral view of an embryo at days gestation showing mammary crests. B Similar view at 6-week gestation showing the remains of the mammary crests. C Transverse section of a mammary crest at the site of the developing mammary gland. Toward the end of the first trimester 21 the primary mammary buds begin to grow downwards into the underlying mesenchyme, under an inductive influence of regulatory factors secreted by the mesenchyme.

At the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, a well-defined mammary bud penetrating into the upper dermis can be observed. Secondary epithelial buds appear from the indentations on the main mammary bud. By 6 months of gestational age, the basic framework of the gland is established.

Repeated branching of the secondary epithelial buds and canalization occur in the third trimester. The epidermis in the region of the future nipple becomes depressed, forming the mammary pit during the third trimester Fig.

The nipple is created with smooth muscle fibers aligned in a circular and longitudinal fashion. During the final weeks of gestation, the loose fibroconnective tissue stroma increases in vascularity. Due to a complex interplay between fetal, placental, and maternal hormones that has not yet been elucidated, 14 limited secretory activity in the late-term fetus and newborn infant may occur.

At term, approximately 15 to 20 lobes of glandular tissue have formed, each containing a lactiferous duct that opens onto the breast surface through the mammary pit. Both the surrounding skin and the fibrous suspensory ligaments of Cooper that anchor the breast to the pectoralis major fascia provide support to the breast.

The first 2 years of life are a critical period for some aspects of breast maturation as well as involution. Soon after birth, the nipples become everted from proliferation of the underlying mesoderm, 13 and the areolae increase in pigmentation. Development of erectile tissue in the nipple areolar complex increases response of the nipple to stimulation.

Nipples that remain inverted until puberty are not uncommon. An increase in vascularity of the gland stroma soon after birth causes a visible difference between the light periductal connective tissue and the denser supporting stroma. Human breast development. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia ;5 2 — The morphological changes begin in the immediate postnatal period and do not follow a linear progression.

At this point, there is no additional development of the stroma or parenchyma beyond what has occurred in infancy. Breast development is generally the first secondary sexual characteristic to develop, preceding pubic hair development by about 6 months. No breast development by 14 years of age in girls should prompt further investigation. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child ;— Copyright BMJ Publishing.

Significant variations in breast development occur in individuals at the same age based on level of pubertal maturation, ethnicity, 36 and hormonal concentrations. No separation of the contours is noted at this time. Significant development of the nipple also occurs during puberty. Underlying the extensive tissue remodeling that occurs at puberty is a mammary cell hierarchy composed of multipotent stem and lineage-restricted progenitor cells.

Following a period of stromal changes, ductal elongation and dichotomous branching occurs, with both these events being under the influence of estrogen. During puberty, the epithelium forms into a branching, bilayered ductal structure, consisting of an outer basal myoepithelial layer of cells and an inner luminal cell layer that can be divided further into ductal luminal cells, lining the inside of the ducts, and alveolar luminal cells, which secrete milk during lactation Fig.

Pubertal breast development. A Carmine-stained whole-mount preparation of the advancing edge arrow of the parenchyma from a year-old girl. B Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained developing breast of year-old girl showing solid end bud-like structures denoted teb and lateral buds arrows.

C Coronal section of breast of year-old girl. D Higher power view of panel C, arrows indicate ducts and unfilled arrowheads indicate duct termini.

E Histology section of the peripheral region of parenchyma seen in C. F Carmine-stained whole mount preparation of breast from year-old nulliparous woman. A segmental duct divides into two subsegmental ducts ss , which then lead to the terminal duct lobular units tdlu.

G Electron micrograph of a normal adult subsegmental duct. The bilayered histology with paler luminal cells l , darker basal myoepithelial cells m is evident. An intraepithelial lymphocyte arrow is also seen.

H Electron micrograph of a terminal duct lobular unit showing two basal clear cells. These have microfilaments in the basal part of the cell large arrows and desmosome attachments with the luminal cells small arrows. Ductal elongation and complex branching originates at the site of the terminal end bud, specifically at the site of the mammary stem cells in the cap cell layer of the terminal end bud.

The primary ducts branch into segmental and subsegmental ducts. As ductal elongation continues, the remainder of the space in the breast is taken up by adipose tissue, along with a mixture of blood vessels, immune cells, and fibroblasts. As for lobular development, four types of lobules, from 1 to 4, are well recognized in the human female breast.

Lobule types 2, 3, and 4 consist of a terminal duct branching into several ductules and an increasing number of alveoli. The mammary glands remain in this mature, but inactive state until pregnancy, which brings about the next major change in the hormonal environment. At puberty, no further development of the breast occurs in the male due to rising testosterone concentrations. Rarely, pubertal gynecomastia may persist and this appears to be due to either end-organ idiosyncrasy or a particularly abnormal estrogen—androgen ratio at the onset of puberty.

Boys also undergo nipple diameter increase during puberty. Boys with gynecomastia have larger nipple size than boys who have none. Mutual and reciprocal interactions between epithelial components and mesenchymal or stromal cells are responsible for prenatal, infant, and pubertal breast development. The formation of lactiferous ducts is induced by placental hormones entering the fetal circulation. Other hormones implicated, but not completely elucidated in prenatal and pubertal breast development are progesterone, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, estrogen, prolactin, adrenal corticoids, and triiodothyronine.

The mammary stem cells and progenitors do not express receptors for hormones and hormone receptor-positive cells generally do not proliferate. The development of the human breast is distinctive due to the extensive remodeling it undergoes into adulthood.

Study of human breast development is essential to understanding pathology, in particular congenital and acquired disorders that often have a basis in development.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Semin Plast Surg v. Semin Plast Surg. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Mammalia are so named based on the presence of the mammary gland in the breast. Development of the Human Breast The human breast consists of parenchymal and stromal elements. Prenatal Development Prenatal breast development can be classified into two main processes; formation of a primary mammary bud and development of a rudimentary mammary gland. Open in a separate window. Second Trimester Secondary epithelial buds appear from the indentations on the main mammary bud.

Third Trimester Repeated branching of the secondary epithelial buds and canalization occur in the third trimester. Infant Breast The first 2 years of life are a critical period for some aspects of breast maturation as well as involution.

Cellular Changes Underlying the extensive tissue remodeling that occurs at puberty is a mammary cell hierarchy composed of multipotent stem and lineage-restricted progenitor cells.

Pubertal Male Breast Development At puberty, no further development of the breast occurs in the male due to rising testosterone concentrations. Regulation of Breast Development Mutual and reciprocal interactions between epithelial components and mesenchymal or stromal cells are responsible for prenatal, infant, and pubertal breast development.

Conclusion The development of the human breast is distinctive due to the extensive remodeling it undergoes into adulthood. References 1. Medina D. The mammary gland: a unique organ for the study of development and tumorigenesis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. Forsyth I A. The mammary gland.

Medically reviewed by Healthline's Medical Network on March 5, Is this true? Galactocele Breast cyst Breast hematoma Breast lump Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Some studies suggest that puberty is starting earlier in the United States and Europe. West Virginia's regulation is very specific and is not likely to be misinterpreted, stating: "[The] display of 'any portion of the cleavage of the human female breast exhibited by a dress, blouse, skirt, leotard, bathing suit, or other wearing apparel [is permitted] provided the areola is not exposed, in whole or in part.

Female nipple formation

Female nipple formation. What is normal breast development?

Other conditions of the nipple can mimic the signs and symptoms of breast cancer. Some infections are transmitted through the nipple, especially if irritation or injury to the nipple has occurred. In these circumstances, the nipple itself can become infected with Candida that is present in the mouth of the breastfeeding infant. The infant will transmit the infection to the mother. In some cases the infection can progress to become a full-blown case of mastitis or breast infection. Herpes infection of the nipple can go unnoticed because the lesions are small but usually are quite painful.

Herpes in the newborn is a serious and sometimes fatal infection. Other infections can be transmitted through a break of the skin of the nipple and can infect the infant. This procedure was historically done only prophylactically or with mastectomy for benign disease over fear of increased cancer development in retained areolar ductal tissue.

Recent series suggest that it may be an oncologically sound procedure for tumors not in the subareolar position. The culture tendency to hide the female nipple under clothing has existed in Western culture since the s. Exposing the entire breast and nipple is a form of protest for some and a crime for others. But nipple exposure of a man was not regulated. A commentator expressed this opinion on the statute by noting: "Ponder the significance of that. A man walks around bare-chested and the worst that happens is he won't get served in restaurants.

But a woman who goes topless is legally in the same boat as if she'd had sex in public. That may seem crazy, but in the U. The legality around the exposure of nipples are inconsistently regulated throughout the US. Some states do not allow the visualization of any part of the breast. Other jurisdictions prohibit any female chest anatomy by banning anatomical structures that lie below the top of the areola or nipple.

Such is the case in West Virginia and Massachusetts. West Virginia's regulation is very specific and is not likely to be misinterpreted, stating: "[The] display of 'any portion of the cleavage of the human female breast exhibited by a dress, blouse, skirt, leotard, bathing suit, or other wearing apparel [is permitted] provided the areola is not exposed, in whole or in part.

Nudity in photos of paintings and sculptures is OK, too". This was incentive for the Twitter campaign FreeTheNipple. Nipples can be sensitive to touch, and nipple stimulation can incite sexual arousal. Some companies and non-profit organisations have used the word nipple or images of nipples to draw attention to their product or cause. The second of the two, tit, was inherited directly from Proto-Germanic, while the first entered English via Old French.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the anatomical structure. For other uses, see Nipple disambiguation. A nipple, areola and breast of a female human.

Main article: Breast feeding. Nipple bleb Candida infection of the nipple Eczema of the nipple Inverted nipple Staphylococcus infection of the nipple Edematous areola [33] Herpes infection of the nipple Reynauld phenomena of the nipple [22] Flat nipple [34]. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Toplessness. Main article: Nipple stimulation. Breast milk Fleischer's syndrome Nipple prosthesis for breast cancer survivors Nipple piercing Supernumerary third nipple Udder.

Retrieved 4 August — via The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 12 August Retrieved Parenting Science. Anatomica's body atlas.

Nature News. American Kennel Club. January 13, Scientific American. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved 4 August BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. National Health Services UK. Hussain, L. Rynn, C. Riordan and P. October Int J Fertil Female's Med.

BBC News. Retrieved 13 August — via www. Retrieved 13 August Pap's A. Justia Law. March Retrieved 15 February Nudity cannot be considered an inherent form of expression.

The Verge. Retrieved 14 August The Daily Beast — via www. The Daily Beast. The Handbook of Sexuality in Close Relationships.

Psychology Press. Retrieved August 12, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana University Press. A few women can even experience orgasm from breast stimulation alone. Smith Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast. Lehmiller The Psychology of Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Sharing a razor can spread bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and cause skin infections. Electric razors. Some electric razors are designed specifically for girls.

These may be less likely to cut the skin, although they can still cause irritation. Some girls experience a small to moderate amount of clear or white vaginal discharge that starts about months before their first period. This is a normal response to growing amounts of the hormone estrogen in the body.

The average age for girls to get their first period in the United States is around age It's important to emphasize that periods are a normal part of growing up. Young girls should know that it's okay to talk about periods and ask questions about them. Some young people may have anxiety about how to handle their first period, given that it can happen unexpectedly.

Providing supplies pads, tampons, and pantiliners for your child's locker or backpack and reviewing resources at school, including the school nurse, can help alleviate this worry. While some people will have periods once a month, periods may be irregular in the first few years as the body adapts to rapid physiological changes. Also, normal cycles of periods can be as short as 21 days or as long as 35… so even people with regular cycles might not have a period every single month!

Abdominal cramping or pain with periods is also common. If menstrual cramps are severe or causing your child to miss school, talk to your pediatrician about other options. The fastest rate of height growth usually occurs in girls between when breast buds start to develop and about 6 months before they get their period. Once a girl has had her first period, her growth has already started to slow down.

Many young people develop acne during puberty. This can be related to changes in hormone levels during this time. On occasion, girls start puberty either very early or very late. There is some debate on this. The short answer to this question: maybe. It's clear that the starting age for puberty has decreased over the last years, likely related to improved nutrition.

Trends in puberty over the last 40 years are less clear. Some studies suggest that puberty is starting earlier in the United States and Europe.

Earlier puberty can be seen in children who were born very small as infants called small for gestational age , and we don't fully understand why this happens. Obesity is also a risk factor for earlier puberty, in part because body fat is involved in how the body processes hormones like estrogen. As youth are growing taller, it's normal to gain weight. Your pediatrician will look for whether your child's weight gain crosses percentile lines on her growth chart or whether her body mass index BMI is greater than the 85th percentile.

Ask your pediatrician for ideas on how to incorporate healthy habits into your family's everyday routines. Emphasize that periods are normal, are part of having a healthy body, and are nothing to be ashamed or embarrassed about. Girls may feel apprehensive about painful periods or anxious that their classmates will find out. While every girl is different, a reassuring approach and adequate information can often relieve some of the anxiety girls may feel about periods.

It's much better for your daughter to be informed about her body early on in the process of puberty than to be surprised or even scared as these changes happen. It can also be helpful to have sanitary napkins available ahead of time and explain how to use them before her first period arrives. Talk openly and honestly about puberty. Answer any questions she may have about the changes in her body.

You may not have to know every answer, but know pediatricians are great resources for any questions about puberty that you or your child have along the way! Healthy adolescents do not need a pelvic exam until they are 21 years old. Pap smears look for evidence of human papilloma virus HPV infection, which can cause pre-cancerous and cancerous changes to the cervix. Pelvic exams are not done as part of routine health care but may be necessary in certain situations: for example, if a sexually active adolescent has abdominal pain.

Also, their breasts are likely to change as they grow, and the development of tenderness and swelling can be normal during changes in the menstrual cycle. These normal changes can sometimes lead to anxiety for girls who are performing regular breast exams. Research also has not shown a benefit from breast self-exams in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

Currently, we do not recommend routine breast self-exams for pediatric patients, and there are differing guidelines for the recommendations for adults. Offer your daughter opportunities to talk about puberty and the changes that come with it. However, some kids simply don't want to talk to their parents about this kind of thing, and that's okay too.

Make sure your daughter knows that you're available if she has any questions and that she has access to trusted resources for information. These include books and appropriate health education at school. If you have specific concerns about your child's development or progression through puberty, your pediatrician would be happy to address them with you and your daughter. Information can be shared in smaller conversations, opening the door for ongoing communication so that your daughter can ask questions at her own pace.

Build a good framework early for discussions later. Though we use the word "girls," it's important to recognize that not all kids with female bodies identify as girls, and puberty can be a particularly stressful time for kids who are transgender, nonbinary or gender diverse. What is an Adolescent Health Specialist? Concerns Girls Have About Puberty. Brittany Allen, MD, FAAP, is a board-certified general pediatrician and provides specialty care to transgender and gender nonconforming youth.

She is also a member of the Minnesota Chapter.

Breast development - Wikipedia

Breast development , also known as mammogenesis , is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.

It occurs across several phases, including prenatal development , puberty , and pregnancy. At menopause , breast development ceases and the breasts atrophy. At puberty , gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH begins to be secreted, in a pulsatile manner, from the hypothalamus.

During pregnancy , pronounced breast growth and maturation occurs in preparation of lactation and breastfeeding. In contrast to the female-associated sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, the male-associated sex hormones, the androgens , such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT , powerfully suppress the action of estrogen in the breasts. Calcitriol , the hormonally active form of vitamin D , acting through the vitamin D receptor VDR , has, like the androgens, been reported to be a negative regulator of mammary gland development in mice, for instance, during puberty.

Upon parturition childbirth , estrogen and progesterone rapidly drop to very low levels, with progesterone levels being undetectable. Some factors of breast morphology, including their density, are clearly implicated in breast cancer. While breast size is moderately heritable, the relationship between breast size and cancer is uncertain. The genetic variants influencing breast size have not been identified. Through genome-wide association studies , a variety of genetic polymorphisms have been linked to breast size.

Circulating IGF-1 levels are positively associated with breast volume in women. Genetic variations in the AR have been linked to both breast volume as well as body mass index and breast cancer aggressiveness. COX-2 expression has been positively associated with breast volume and inflammation in breast tissue, as well as with breast cancer risk and prognosis.

Women with CAIS, who are completely insensitive to the AR-mediated actions of androgens, have, as a group, above-average sized breasts. This is true despite the fact that they simultaneously have relatively low levels of estrogen, which demonstrates the powerful suppressant effect of androgens on estrogen-mediated breast development.

Aromatase excess syndrome , an extremely rare condition characterized by marked hyperestrogenism , is associated with precocious breast development and macromastia in females and similarly precocious gynecomastia women's breasts in males.

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Camacho 26 September Evidence-Based Endocrinology. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Kopchick 25 November Mammary Gland Biol.

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Joseph Su; Tung-chin Chiang 14 June Environmental Epigenetics. Springer London. Paolo; Weinberg, Robert A. Developmental Cell. North Am. Horseman 6 December Bland; Edward M. Copeland III 9 September Haschek; Colin G. Rousseaux; Matthew A. Wallig 1 May Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology. Elsevier Science. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Di Saia; William T. Creasman Clinical Gynecologic Oncology. Hurd Clinical Reproductive Medicine and Surgery. Darney November A Clinical Guide for Contraception.

Remington; Jerome O. Klein 24 February Psychology Press. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Cengage Learning. Semin Plast Surg. Bone Miner. Cancer Res. Harris; Marc E. Lippman; C. Kent Osborne; Monica Morrow 28 March Diseases of the Breast. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. Cell Sci. Cell Growth Differ. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

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Female nipple formation